Sloane, Hans, Sir, 1660-1753

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1660-04-16
Death 1753-01-11
Britons
English

Biographical notes:

Hans Sloane was born in England in 1660. He studied chemistry at Apothecaries' Hall, and botany at the Chelsea Physic Garden. He went on to apprentice in medicine under Sydenham, and took over the practice when Sydenham became too ill to work. Dr. Sloane traveled to Jamaica as the physician of the second Duke of Albemarle in 1688. While in Jamaica, he collected and brought home to England more than 800 species of plants. He published two books on his experience and discoveries in Jamaica. After returning to England, he became the secretary of the Royal Society, and edited its Philosophical Transactions. He eventually became the physician to the King of England, and also President of the College of Physicians. Dr. Sloane was an avid collector of many different types of materials, and his personal collections were the foundation of the collection of the British Museum. Dr. Sloane was married to Elizabeth Rose, and died in 1753.

From the description of Sir Hans Sloane Letters Received 1704-1740 (Medical University of South Carolina Library). WorldCat record id: 216882272

British physician and naturalist.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [n.p.], to Servington Savery of Shilston, 1730 Nov. 6. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270663494

Physician, naturalist, and collector of manuscripts.

From the description of Sir Hans Sloane collection, 1574-1744. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 77600179

Epithet: Colonel

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000001130.0x000347

John Bartram was the first native American botanist and made many journeys through the southern frontier, collecting seeds and bulbs for transplanting.

From the guide to the John Bartram correspondence, 1735-1775, 1735-1775, (American Philosophical Society)

Hans Sloane was a physician, naturalist, and founder of the British Museum.

From the description of Correspondence, ca. 1647-1743. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122474111

From the description of Correspondence (University of Chicago Library). WorldCat record id: 123420650

From the guide to the Sir Hans Sloane correspondence, ca. 1647-1743, Circa 1647-1743, (American Philosophical Society)

Epithet: of Add MS 35666

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000001305.0x00011c

English physician and naturalist.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : London, to John Ray, 1684 Dec. 20. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270872258

Epithet: physician and collector

Title: Baronet

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000000496.0x000238

Peter Collinson (1694–1768) was an English merchant and botanist. He was a partner in his father’s London trading business, and he remained a merchant throughout his life. However, at a young age, he also developed a passion for botany. He eventually wrote numerous essays on natural history topics for the Gentleman’s Magazine, and he contributed many reports to the Society of Antiquaries and to the Royal Society, of which he was a member. His extensive network of correspondents in Europe and North America placed Collinson at the nexus of the community of eighteenth century European and American natural scientists.

Peter Collinson was born in London, the son of the Quaker and London cloth merchant Peter Collinson and his wife Elizabeth Hall. Young Peter’s love of plants apparently stemmed from a garden owned by relatives with whom he lived as a boy and which he later inherited. However, Collinson is known less for his own original contributions to natural science than for his tireless support of the work of others. His publications and affiliation with the Royal Society brought him in contact with many eminent European naturalists and scientists of his day, including Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753), Stephen Hales (1677-1761), and J. J. Dillenius (1684-1747). He also knew the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778, APS 1769), who named horse balm ( Collinsonia canadensis ) after him. Collinson was always supportive of the work of ordinary gardeners and plantsmen, such as Philip Miller (1691-1771), the gardener of the Chelsea Physic Garden, and the nurseryman James Gordon, who helped maintain the extensive gardens of Lord Petre, Collinson’s close friend and patron of scientific endeavors.

Collinson’s numerous contacts with fellow botanists placed him at the center of a large network of mid-eighteenth century European and American naturalists. It was through his family’s extensive trade in the cloth business with North America that he got to know a number of Americans. They included Alexander Garden (1730-1791, APS 1768), Cadwallader Colden (1688-1776, APS 1768), Benjamin Franklin and John Bartram (1699-1777, APS 1768).

Collinson and Bartram were particularly close friends. In the early 1730s, Bartram wrote to Collinson soliciting the post of king’s botanist in North America. While Collinson was not able to secure the position for another three decades, the two men arranged for Bartram to send seeds and seedlings to British subscribers. This group eventually numbered more than sixty men and included some of the most prominent botanists and landscape designers in Britain. Moreover, beginning in 1733, the two men engaged in a lively exchange of ideas and specimen that lasted until Collinson’s death in 1768. Collinson communicated many of Bartram’s studies to the Royal Society, which published Bartrams observations in the Philosophical Transactions . The naturalist John Fothergill (1712-1780, APS 1770) one of Collinson’s close friends, wrote that the “eminent naturalist, John Bartram, may almost be said to have been created such by my friend’s assistance.” John Bartram’s son William acknowledged Collinson’s crucial role in his father’s career, noting that “it was principally through the interest of Collinson that he [John Bartram] became acquainted, and entered into correspondence with, many of the most celebrated literary characters in Europe, and was elected a member of the Royal Society of London, of Stockholm, etc.” Collinson, who maintained his own extensive garden, introduced several American plants into Britain, including the American alder, three species of azalea, black birch, hemlock, sugar maple, mountain laurel, and many medicinal herbs.

Collinson and Franklin also maintained a long friendship marked by an active correspondence. Their shared interests included the discovery of mastodon bones in North America and, more famously, topics related to electricity. In fact, it was Collinson who introduced Franklin’s ideas on electricity to the Royal Society; the Society not only published them but also recognized Franklin’s work with the Copley medal in 1753. Franklin admired Collinson’s qualities as a scientist and as a man. He wrote that “if we may estimate the goodness of a man by his disposition to do good, and his constant endeavors and success in doing it, I can hardly conceive that a better man has ever existed.”

Collinson’s interests in North American matters also included the promotion of crop experiments in the colonies. In addition, he was an early patron of the American Philosophical Society, though not a member, and for many years served as purchasing agent for the Library Company of Philadelphia.

In 1724 Peter Collinson married Mary Russell. They had two children.

From the guide to the Collinson-Bartram Papers, 1732-1773, 1732-1773, (American Philosophical Society)

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Subjects:

  • Horticulture
  • Seed industry and trade--England
  • Plant collectors
  • Horticulture--England
  • Science
  • Gardens--England
  • History--18th century
  • Philadelphia History
  • Botanists
  • Plants--Collection and preservation
  • Pennsylvania History
  • Gardening--England
  • Materia medica
  • Natural history
  • Seed industry and trade--United States
  • Botany
  • Horticulture--United States
  • Plants, Cultivated
  • Colony and State Specific History
  • Botany--History
  • Science and technology
  • Horticulturists

Occupations:

  • Naturalist
  • Physicians
  • Collector

Places:

  • Gravesend, Kent (as recorded)
  • St Giles in the Fields, Middlesex (as recorded)
  • Dover, Kent (as recorded)
  • Ulster, Province of, Northern Ireland (as recorded)
  • Sussex, England (as recorded)
  • Tangier, Morocco (as recorded)
  • Caithness-shire, Scotland (as recorded)
  • Cambrai, France (as recorded)
  • Vienna, Austria (as recorded)
  • Petersfield, Hampshire (as recorded)
  • Oran, Algiers (as recorded)
  • Wittenberg, Germany (as recorded)
  • St Giles in the Fields, Middlesex (as recorded)
  • Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire (as recorded)
  • Coln St Aldwyn or Colne St Aldwyns, Gloucestershire (as recorded)
  • Japan, Asia (as recorded)
  • Cornwall, England (as recorded)
  • Zurich, Switzerland (as recorded)
  • London, England (as recorded)
  • Barbary, North Africa (as recorded)
  • Jersey, Channel Islands (as recorded)
  • Newbury, Berkshire (as recorded)
  • Strasburg, France (as recorded)
  • Hanby Grange, Lincolnshire (as recorded)
  • Switzerland, Europe (as recorded)
  • Barbados, the Carribean (as recorded)
  • River Tay, Scotland (as recorded)
  • Ipswich, Suffolk (as recorded)
  • Dublin, Ireland (as recorded)
  • Northampton, Northamptonshire (as recorded)
  • Banffshire, Scotland (as recorded)
  • Bremen, Germany (as recorded)
  • London, England (as recorded)
  • Bologna, Italy (as recorded)
  • Pontefract, Yorkshire (as recorded)
  • Montpellier, France (as recorded)
  • Malta, Europe (as recorded)
  • Deal, Kent (as recorded)
  • Limburg, the Netherlands (as recorded)
  • Ireland, Europe (as recorded)
  • Paris, France (as recorded)
  • Italy, Europe (as recorded)
  • Hillingdon, Middlesex (as recorded)
  • Canary Islands, Spain (as recorded)
  • Appleby, Westmorland (as recorded)
  • Lowestoft, Suffolk (as recorded)
  • Austria, Europe (as recorded)
  • India, Asia (as recorded)
  • Mardike Canal, Dunkirk (as recorded)
  • India, Asia (as recorded)
  • Ceylon, Asia (as recorded)
  • Eveleary, Cork (as recorded)
  • Hebrides, Scotland (as recorded)
  • Devizes, Wiltshire (as recorded)
  • India, Asia (as recorded)
  • Exeter, Devon (as recorded)
  • Bath, Somerset (as recorded)
  • America, North America (as recorded)
  • Hollington, Sussex (as recorded)
  • East Winch, alias Pedders Winch (as recorded)
  • Scotland, United Kingdom (as recorded)
  • East Looe, Cornwall (as recorded)
  • Sutton-le-Marsh, Lincolnshire (as recorded)
  • Lincolnshire, England (as recorded)
  • Royston, Hertfordshire (as recorded)
  • Kingston, Somerset (as recorded)
  • Clayworth, Nottinghamshire (as recorded)
  • London, England (as recorded)
  • London, England (as recorded)
  • Mindelheim, Swabia (as recorded)
  • Essex, England (as recorded)
  • Kent, England (as recorded)
  • Chelsea, Middlesex (as recorded)
  • Utrecht, the Netherlands (as recorded)
  • Jamaica, Central America (as recorded)
  • Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumberland (as recorded)
  • Northamptonshire, England (as recorded)
  • Fowey, Cornwall (as recorded)
  • Chelsea, Middlesex (as recorded)
  • Cuckfield, Sussex (as recorded)
  • India, Asia (as recorded)
  • Cornwall, England (as recorded)
  • Besthorpe, Norfolk (as recorded)
  • Tarragona, Catalonia (as recorded)
  • Transylvania, Central Europe (as recorded)
  • Bristol, Gloucestershire (as recorded)
  • Montpellier, France (as recorded)
  • Wapping, Middlesex (as recorded)
  • Japan, Asia (as recorded)
  • Romsey, Hampshire (as recorded)
  • Gloucestershire, England (as recorded)
  • Lüneburg, Lower Saxony (as recorded)
  • Pyrmont, Germany (as recorded)
  • Marseilles, France (as recorded)
  • Liege, Belgium (as recorded)
  • Ashington, Sussex (as recorded)
  • Belgium, Europe (as recorded)
  • Coleshill, Warwickshire (as recorded)
  • Australia, Australia (as recorded)
  • Barbados, the Carribean (as recorded)
  • Sussex, England (as recorded)
  • Coleman St, London, Coleman St (as recorded)
  • America, North America (as recorded)
  • Hythe, Kent (as recorded)
  • Jamaica, Central America (as recorded)
  • India, Asia (as recorded)
  • Sunbury, Middlesex (as recorded)
  • Rochester, Kent (as recorded)
  • Paris, France (as recorded)
  • Lydd, Kent (as recorded)
  • Netherlands, Europe (as recorded)
  • Canterbury, Kent (as recorded)
  • Gibraltar, Spain (as recorded)
  • London, England (as recorded)
  • Florence, Italy (as recorded)
  • Virginia, U.S.A. (as recorded)
  • Frascati, Italy (as recorded)
  • Wittenberg, Germany (as recorded)
  • Sweden, Europe (as recorded)
  • Madeira, Portugal (as recorded)
  • West Indies, America (as recorded)
  • Straits of Magellan, South America (as recorded)
  • Holland, the Netherlands (as recorded)
  • Walkeringham, Nottinghamshire (as recorded)
  • Kilmainham, Dublin (as recorded)
  • Carlisle, Cumberland (as recorded)
  • Jamaica, Central America (as recorded)
  • India, Asia (as recorded)
  • London, England (as recorded)
  • Portugal, Europe (as recorded)
  • London, England (as recorded)
  • Boutonnet, Montpellier (as recorded)
  • Moco Moco, Sumatra (as recorded)
  • Neusohl, Hungary (as recorded)
  • Switzerland, Europe (as recorded)
  • Prussia, Germany (as recorded)
  • Arreton, Isle of Wight (as recorded)
  • Christchurch, Hampshire (as recorded)
  • Plymouth, Devon (as recorded)
  • South Carolina (as recorded)
  • New England, America (as recorded)
  • Downpatrick, Down (as recorded)
  • Pontefract, Yorkshire (as recorded)
  • Guernsey, Channel Islands (as recorded)
  • China, Asia (as recorded)
  • Westminster, Middlesex (as recorded)
  • Devonshire, England (as recorded)
  • Dundee, Forfarshire (as recorded)
  • Ellington, Huntingdonshire (as recorded)
  • India, Asia (as recorded)
  • Hampton Court, Middlesex (as recorded)
  • London, England (as recorded)
  • Dudley, Staffordshire (as recorded)
  • Bologna, Italy (as recorded)
  • Guinea, Africa (as recorded)
  • Tattersett, Norfolk (as recorded)
  • Venice, Italy (as recorded)
  • Stoke Damerel, Devon (as recorded)
  • Essex, England (as recorded)
  • Maryland, N. America (as recorded)
  • Kyancutta, S. Australia (as recorded)
  • Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany (as recorded)
  • Gravesend, Kent (as recorded)
  • Jamaica, Central America (as recorded)
  • America, North America (as recorded)
  • Leeds, Yorkshire (as recorded)
  • Breslau, Silesia (as recorded)
  • Denbighshire, Wales (as recorded)
  • Fawsley Lodge, Northamptonshire (as recorded)
  • Trusthorpe, Lincolnshire (as recorded)
  • Worcester, Worcestershire (as recorded)
  • China, Asia (as recorded)
  • Coningsby, Lincolnshire (as recorded)
  • Dublin, Ireland (as recorded)
  • Hampton Court, Middlesex (as recorded)
  • Bath, Somerset (as recorded)
  • Griffinrath, Kildare (as recorded)
  • Edinburgh, Scotland (as recorded)
  • Suffolk, England (as recorded)
  • Bolton Percy, West Riding of Yorkshire (as recorded)
  • Middlesex, England (as recorded)
  • Great Yarmouth, Norfolk (as recorded)
  • Hemingby, Lincolnshire (as recorded)
  • Chichester, Sussex (as recorded)
  • Hoxton, Middlesex (as recorded)
  • Trinidad, the Carribean (as recorded)
  • Lapland, Northern Europe (as recorded)
  • Middlesex, England (as recorded)
  • Winchester, Hampshire (as recorded)
  • Bonsall, Derbyshire (as recorded)
  • Farrington Gurney, Somerset (as recorded)
  • Marseilles, France (as recorded)
  • Greenwich, Kent (as recorded)
  • Chemnitz, Germany (as recorded)
  • Dudley, Staffordshire (as recorded)
  • Holborn and Finsbury, Middlesex (as recorded)
  • Candia Island, Crete (as recorded)
  • Japan, Asia (as recorded)
  • Wisbeach, Cambridgeshire (as recorded)
  • Marseilles, France (as recorded)
  • Chelsea, Middlesex (as recorded)
  • Cairo, Egypt (as recorded)
  • Silchester, Hampshire (as recorded)
  • Peebles, Scotland (as recorded)
  • Paris, France (as recorded)
  • New Zealand, Australia (as recorded)
  • Liverpool, England (as recorded)
  • York, Yorkshire (as recorded)
  • Chelsea, Middlesex (as recorded)
  • Fulham, Middlesex (as recorded)