Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992

Alternative names
Birth 1906-12-09
Death 1992-01-01

Biographical notes:

Grace Murray Hopper was a pioneer in the development of computer programming languages.

Grace Murray Hopper received her Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale University in 1934, where she studied with Professor Howard Engstrom. After teaching at New York University and Barnard College, she became a research fellow at the Harvard University Computation Laboratory in 1946 where she worked with Howard Aiken on the Mark I computer. In 1949 she went to work for the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation as a senior programmer where, with Betty Holberton, she developed the original software for the UNIVAC I. After the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation merged with Remington Rand, Dr. Hopper became director of Programming Development. During her years with Remington Rand (later Sperry Rand) Dr. Hopper worked on developing the A-O compiler and MATH-A-MATIC programs. In the late 1950s she developed the COBOL computer language. In 1966, she left Sperry Rand and went to work for the U.S. Navy. Her first project was to develop the Navy Tactical Data System for Atomic Submarines. Dr. Hopper remained with the Navy until her retirement in 1985. During these years she worked on numerous programming languages which were used in the American space program and for communication within the NATO military command structure.

From the description of Oral history interview, 1979 July 20th [tape]. (Hagley Museum & Library). WorldCat record id: 122555008


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  • Computer programs
  • Computer software
  • Univac computer
  • Computer programming
  • MATH-A-MATIC (Computer program)
  • Computer programs--Research
  • Electronic data processing
  • Computer engineering
  • Computer industry
  • Computers--Anecdotes
  • BINAC (Computer)
  • Mark I (Calculator)
  • Computer programming--Management
  • ENIAC (Computer)
  • Navy Technical Data System
  • COBOL (Computer program language)


  • Mathematicians
  • Women scientists
  • Computer scientists
  • Computer programmers
  • Engineers
  • Admirals


  • New York City, NY, US
  • Arlington, VA, US