Santa Anna, Antonio López de, 1794?-1876

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1794-02-21
Death 1876-06-21

Biographical notes:

Epithet: President of Mexico

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000000297.0x000203

Commander in chief of Mexican Army and President of Mexico during war with United States (1846-1848). Letter thanks Don Juan Valdivia for providing lumber and use of his estate for defense against possible Spanish invasion (1829).

From the description of Antonio Loṕez de Santa Anna letter, 1829. (University of the Pacific). WorldCat record id: 34775093

Antonio López de Santa Anna, called the Napoleon of the West, was a Mexican soldier and five-time President of Mexico during the country's fight for independence.

From the description of Letter to Joel Roberts Poinsett, 1829, March 26. (Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens). WorldCat record id: 777701943

Army officer and president of Mexico.

From the description of Antonio López de Santa Anna papers, 1836-1874. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70980387

President of Mexico. Born 1794 or 1795 in Jalapa; died 1876 in Mexico City. Began military career in 1810; promoted to brigadier general in 1822. First named president of Mexico in 1833, which position he repeatedly abdicated and resumed until leaving office for the final time in 1855. Led Mexican forces in 1835-1836 campaign against Texas independence, and in 1847 in war with United States. During the latter he served alternately as president and as military commander. Santa Anna spent repeated periods of exile in the Caribbean. After one return to Mexico in February 1864, he promptly was deported by General Achille Bazaine for failing to abide by the terms of the agreement allowing his reentry. Santa Anna was imprisoned in 1867 then exiled until 1874, when he returned to Mexico under a general amnesty. He died in poverty in Mexico City on June 20, 1876.

From the description of Antonio López de Santa Anna Collection, 1821-1878. (University of Texas Libraries). WorldCat record id: 29948821

President of Mexico. Born 1794 or 1795 in Jalapa; died 1876 in Mexico City. Began military career in 1810; promoted to brigadier general in 1822. Offices and honors include: governor of Yucatan (ca. 1825 and 1829), governor of Veracruz (1828), benemérito de la patria (1829), and benemérito en grado heróico (1835).

Santa Anna was first named president of Mexico on March 30, 1833, which position he repeatedly abdicated and resumed until leaving the office for the final time in 1855. He led Mexican forces in 1835 and 1836 in the campaign against Texas independence, and in 1847 in the war with the United States. During the latter he served alternately as president and as military commander.

Santa Anna spent repeated periods of exile in the Caribbean. Upon one return to Mexico in February 1864, he promptly was deported by General Achille Bazaine for failing to abide by the terms of the agreement allowing his reentry. Santa Anna was imprisoned in 1867 then exiled until 1874, when he returned to Mexico under a general amnesty. He died in poverty in Mexico City on June 20, 1876.

  • 21 Feb 1794/5: born in Jalapa, Veracruz
  • 6 July 1810: entered the Veracruz infantry as a cadet
  • 13 March 1811: went with his regiment to Tampico to suppress insurgents working for the separation of Texas
  • 1813: returned to Veracruz, promoted for bravery to first lieutenant
  • 1814: made aide to General Dávila, royalist commander of Veracruz
  • March 1816: promoted to captain
  • March 1821: given command of troops in Veracruz, sent to rescue Orizaba and Córdoba from pro-independence forces
  • 23 March 1821: arrived in Orizaba, defeated the insurgent Miranda
  • 29 March 1821: General Herrera arrived, as did dispatch from Viceroy making Santa Anna lieutenant colonel as reward for Miranda's defeat; Santa Anna joined Herrera in support of Iturbide
  • 25 April 1821: Santa Anna came to Herrera's aid at Tepeaca, defeated the Spanish colonel Hevia rewarded by Iturbide with promotion to Chief of the Army's 11th Division
  • July 1821: surrounded Veracruz and suggested that his old protector General Dávila surrender to him; Dávila successfully resisted
  • 21 July 1821: Viceroy Juan O'Donojú arrived en route to Córdoba, where Iturbide awaited him to finalize treaties ending Spain's dominance of Mexico Dávila withdrew from Veracruz at the end of October, still faithful to Ferdinand VII
  • 27 Sept 1821: Trigarante army entered Mexico City
  • 28 Sept 1821: Regency established
  • 25 Oct 1822: Santa Anna with General Rincón took Veracruz Iturbide named Santa Anna brigadier general and Commander of the Province of Veracruz
  • 16 Nov 1822: suspicious of Santa Anna, Iturbide arrived in Jalapa, removed Santa Anna from his command, ordered him to join the Junta de Guerra in Mexico City; Santa Anna instead returned to Veracruz
  • 2 Dec 1822: in Veracruz, Santa Anna proclaimed ?la República,? declared Iturbide's reign ?invalid,? demanded new Congreso Constituyente
  • 1 Feb 1823: Plan de Casa Mata signed
  • 19 March 1823: Iturbide abdicated government sent Santa Anna to San Luis Potosí as commander of the province
  • 5 June 1823: Santa Anna announced his support of the Federal Republic called to Mexico, Santa Anna placed under house arrest freed by intervention of Vicente Guerrero, was reinstated as brigadier general and named military commander of Yucatán
  • mid-1824: arrived at Campeche declared war on Spain, tried to invade Cuba against the wishes of the Mexican government
  • 25 April 1825: government accepted Santa Anna's resignation as Governor (?) of Yucatán President Guadalupe Victoria named him director of the Corps of Engineers, but Santa Anna soon gave up post; went to Alvarado (Veracruz), married Inés de la Paz, n.d. (Inés García?), bought hacienda of Manga de Clavo
  • 30 Dec 1826 (23 Dec 1827?): Vicente Guerrero sent to put down Montaño's rebellion at Otumba; Santa Anna offered his services to Guerrero
  • 7 January 1828: Santa Anna and Guerrero defeated and exiled Barragán and Bravo Santa Anna named Governor of Veracruz in Barragán's place
  • 1 Sept 1828: Congress declared Pedraza president and Vicente Guerrero vice-president
  • 12 Sept 1828: Santa Anna demanded that presidency be given to Guerrero
  • 3 Dec 1828: Pedraza fled the presidency
  • 8 Dec 1828: Guerrero named secretary of war
  • 1 April 1829: Guerrero became president Santa Anna again Governor of Veracruz
  • 27 July 1829: Spanish under Barradas took Tampico
  • 11 Sept 1829: Santa Anna with General Mier y Terán defeated Barradas' troops Santa Anna named ?Benemérito de la Patria?
  • 4 Oct 1829: Santa Anna returned to Veracruz
  • 4 Dec 1829: refused to administer the Plan of Jalapa with Bustamante against Guerrero
  • 3 Jan 1830: renounced his politico-military duties
  • 2 Jan 1832: Military garrison of Veracruz rebelled against Bustamante, Santa Anna offered to mediate government accused Santa Anna of leading rebellion
  • March 1832: Santa Anna defeated by government forces
  • 5 Oct 1832: Pedraza returned from the U.S.
  • 24 Dec 1832: Pedraza assumed presidency in Puebla
  • 3 Jan 1833: Pedraza and Santa Anna entered Mexico City
  • 30 March 1833: Santa Anna named President, with Gómez Farías as vice-president
  • 1 April 1833: Gómez Farías became president as Santa Anna pleaded ill health; Farías'policies proved unpopular
  • 16 May 1833: Santa Anna resumed presidency
  • 3 June 1833: Santa Anna returned presidency to Farías took command of the army so as to subdue insurrections of Morelia and Tlalpan held captive by Arista while Gómez Farías put down rebellion
  • 5 July 1833: Santa Anna pursued Arista
  • 12 Oct 1833: defeated Arista in Guanajuato
  • 27 Oct 1833: Santa Anna resumed presidency
  • 15 Dec 1833: left presidency, requesting from Congress 6 months' leave because of his health
  • 24 April 1834: Santa Anna resumed presidency
  • 27 Jan 1835: Santa Anna left presidency
  • 11 May 1835: defeated Salinas in Battle of Guadalupe, Zacatecas named ?Benemérito en grado heróico? headed exposition to quell uprising in Texas
  • 26 Feb 1836: entered Texas, attacked Alamo
  • 6 Mar 1836: attacked presidio of Espíritu Santo
  • 21 Apr 1836: defeated by Houston at San Jacinto
  • 18 Jan 1837: interviewed by U.S. President Jackson
  • 21 Feb 1837: returned to Veracruz by boat, to the cheers of the populace
  • 27 Nov 1838: French fired on San Juan de Ulúa, Santa Anna defended
  • 5 Dec 1838: lost leg
  • 20 March 1839: Santa Anna succeeded Bustamante as interim president
  • 30 April 1839: defeated federalists Mejía and Urrea at Acajete
  • 10 July 1839: surrendered presidency to Nicolás Bravo
  • 10 Oct 1841: Santa Anna resumed presidency
  • 26 Oct 1842: returned presidency to Bravo
  • 4 March 1843: Santa Anna resumed presidency first wife died; married Dolores de Tosta
  • 4 Oct 1843: surrendered presidency to Canalizo
  • 4 June 1844: Santa Anna took oath as constitutional president
  • 7 Sept 1844: obtained leave of absence from presidency
  • 19 Nov 1844: Paredes y Arrillaga rebelled in Guadalajara Santa Anna attacked Arrillaga without consent of Congress Santa Anna's army deserted; he was captured and exiled
  • 3 June 1845: Santa Anna left Veracruz for Havana
  • 4 Aug 1846: Paredes y Arrillaga removed from office
  • 22 Aug 1846: Santa Anna returned to Veracruz, proclaiming the reestablishment of the Constitution of 1824
  • 6 Dec 1846: Congress named Santa Anna interim president Santa Anna surrendered presidency to Gómez Farías went to San Luis Potosí to rally troops against U.S. General Taylor
  • 26 Jan 1847: Santa Anna attacked Taylor
  • 23 Feb 1847: defeated Taylor
  • 21 March 1847: Santa Anna resumed presidency
  • 2 April 1847: surrendered presidency to Anaya went to fight U.S. General Scott in Veracruz
  • 20 May 1847: Santa Anna resumed the presidency lost five battles against U.S.
  • 16 Sept 1847: surrendered presidency, escaped via Guatemala or the U.S., sailed to Jamaica then to Turbaco, Colombia
  • 1 April 1853: returned to Veracruz
  • 19 April 1853: made triumphal entry into Mexico City
  • 20 April 1853: Santa Anna resumed the Presidency
  • 16 Dec 1853: Council of State gave Santa Anna ?facultades omnímodas,? title of ?alteza serenísima?
  • 1 March 1854: Plan of Ayutla against Santa Anna
  • 9 Aug 1855: Santa Anna renounced Presidency went to Havana, then Turbaco, Colombia
  • 27 Feb 1864: Santa Anna returned to Veracruz, promising Bazaine not to be politically active, but continued seeking support
  • 12 March 1864: Bazaine deported Santa Anna from Veracruz
  • Jan 1866: Santa Anna visited by U.S. Secretary of State Seward on island of St. Thomas
  • 3 June 1867: Santa Anna returned to Veracruz, claiming U.S. endorsement
  • 4 June 1867: Santa Anna taken with U.S. help to Sisal, Yucatán, and imprisoned
  • 30 July 1867: Santa Anna moved to prison of San Juan de Ulúa Santa Anna's death sentence commuted to exile
  • 2 Nov 1867: Santa Anna sailed to Havana, then to the Bahamas
  • 1874: Santa Anna allowed to return to Mexico by Lerdo de Tejada under a general amnesty
  • 20 June 1876: died in poverty in Mexico City

From the guide to the Antonio López de Santa Anna Collection 29948821., 1821-1878, (Benson Latin American Collection, University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin)

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Permalink:
http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6mp52hr
Ark ID:
w6mp52hr
SNAC ID:
36017440

Subjects:

  • Soldiers
  • Spaniards--History--Sources
  • Mexican War, 1846-1848
  • Presidents--Election--1828
  • Mexican War, 1846-1848--Sources
  • Presidents--Correspondence
  • San Jacinto, Battle of, Tex., 1836

Occupations:

  • Army officers, Mexican
  • Presidents--Mexico
  • Soldiers--Mexico
  • Soldiers--United States
  • Public officers--Mexico

Places:

  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • Texas (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • Santa Fe (N.M.) (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • Texas (as recorded)
  • Texas (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • Veracruz (Veracruz, Mexico) (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • Veracruz-Llave (Mexico : State) (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Cuba (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • Veracruz (Veracruz, Mexico) (as recorded)
  • Southwest, New (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • New Mexico (as recorded)