United States. National Park Service

Alternative names
Active 1600
Active 1993

History notes:

U.S. National Park Service has managed the Morristown National Historical Park since 1933.

From the description of Morristown National Historical Park resource management records, 1933-1994 (bulk 1938-1970). (Morristown National History Park). WorldCat record id: 71014733

The National Park Service is the U.S. federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act. It is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. --http://www.nps.gov/

From the description of The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings vol. XXVI, 1977. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 504918120

The Branch of lands, also known as lands and maps, was established in 1928 to investigate proposed park areas and supervise land acquisition. It was renamed the Branch of Planning in 1932, and supervision of land acquisition was transferred to the Branch of Lands and Use. In 1933 the Branch, with a succession of name changes, was put in charge of Emergency Conservation Work (ECW) activities in State and local parks, and in 1936 it was authorized to supervise Civiilian Conservation Corps (CCC) work in national park areas. The Branch was also in charge of Work Projects Administration (WPA) Emergency Relief Appropriation (ERA) projects; the recreational demonstration area program; the park, parkway, and recreation area study; and, for a time, the U.S. Travel Bureau.

From the description of Records of the National Park Service Records of the Branch of Recreation, Land Planning, and State Cooperation. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122516124

The Field Headquarters at San Francisco was organized in 1927 to coordinate work of the several field divisions and was placed under the chief engineer of the Engineering Division. Technical functions were gradually transferred from the field to Washington, and in 1935 the use of the term "Field Headquarters" was discontinued.

From the description of Records of the National Park Service Records of the Field Headquarters at San Francisco. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122503090

The Forestry Division, established in the Berkeley Office of the Service in 1927, was transferred to Washington in November 1933 as the Branch of Forestry and redesignated the Forestry Division in 1947. The Branch was concerned chiefly with protecting forests from fires, insects, diseases, and other dangers.

From the description of Records of the National Park Service Records of the Branch of Forestry. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 86118880

Established 1916; administration of the Gettysburg National Military Park, was transferred from the War Dept. to the National Park Service in 1933.

From the description of National Park Service, Gettysburg National Military Park licensed battlefield guide records, 1897-1999 (bulk 1922-1999). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70967443

Proclaimed Sieur de Monts National Monument, July 8, 1916; established as Lafayette National Park, Feb. 26, 1919; renamed Acadia National Park, Jan. 19, 1929. Today the park protects more than 47,000 acres.

From the description of Acadia National Park resource management records, 1903-2007 1932-1984. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 758374237

The Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) began during the Great Depression in December 1933, when Charles E. Peterson of the National Park Service submitted a proposal for one thousand out-of-work architects to spend ten weeks documenting "America's antique buildings." Having operated under various administrative authorities for its first two years, HABS became a permanent program of the National Park Service in July 1934 and was formally authorized by Congress as part of the Historic Sites Act of 1935. The Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) was founded in 1969 to parallel HABS, providing for documentation of engineering works and industrial sites.

From the guide to the Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record collection, undated, (Montana Historical Society Research Center)

The Engineering Division was established in 1917, renamed the Branch of Engineering in 1933, and merged with the Branch of Plans and Design in 1946 to form the Branch of Development.

From the description of Records of the National Park Service Records of the Branch of Engineering. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122567246

The system of National Capital Parks has been operated as a separate unit of the Park Serivce since 1933, and in 1962 it was made the sixth region, the National Capital Region.

From the description of Records of Regional Offices. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 86118882

Established 1916.

From the description of Adams National Historical Park resource management records, 1946-1992. (Becton Dickinson Technology). WorldCat record id: 70968785

This Branch originated as the Landscape Engineering Division in 1918 and was renamed Landscape Architecture Division in 1928 and the Branch of Plans and Design in 1933. From 1931 it prepared master plans for national parks and monuments, and in 1946 it was merged with the Branch of Engineering to form the Branch of Development.

From the description of Records of the National Park Service Records of the Branch of Plans and Design. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122515929

Castle Clinton was built as a fort in 1811 and was transformed to Castle Clinton for public entertainment in 1824. It served as an immigrant landing depot, 1855-1882, and later housed the New York City Aquarium, 1896-1941.

From the description of Castle Clinton collection, 1798-[ca.1930] (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 155513802

The Potomac Company incorporated in Maryland and Virginia, was organized in 1785, with George Washington as president, to improve navigation of the Potomac river by deepening the channel and cutting canals around the falls. The company never succeeded, and in 1828 its property was transferred to the newly organized Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company. The latter company proposed to build a canal from Washington to the navagable water of the Ohio river or one of its tributaries. Construction on the canal began July 4, 1828, and continued sporadically until 1850, when the canal was completed to Cumberland, Md. In 1889 the canal passed into receivership and was operated by a receiver until it was closed in 1924. In 1938 the property was purchased by the United States and placed under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service, which received the records of both companies.

From the description of Records of the Potomac Company and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122648481

The Wild Life Survey, organized in the Berkeley Office of the Service in 1929, was formally established in the Washington Office in 1934 as the Wildlife Division to direct conservation and management of wildlife. In December 1939 its duties and personnel were transferred to the Bureau of Biological Survey and the Bureau of Fisheries, which merged in 1940 to form the Fish and Wildlife Service.

From the description of Records of the National Park Service Records of the Wildlife Division. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122572611

These include central files, 1907-39; central classified files, 1907-49; processed issuances consisting chiefly of memorandums sent to regional directors, other field officers, and central office employees, 1940-47; records concerning the National Capital Park and Planning Commission, 1923-34; NATURE NOTES, 1927-35; newspaper and magazine clippings, 1915-25; an appropriation expenditure record, 1915-21; abstracts of disbursements, 1921-25; an allotment ledger, 1924-30; and summary financial statements, 1925-32.

From the description of Records of the National Park Service General Records. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122456554

William Swain was an architect and mayor of Pullman, Washington, from 1917-1919.

Born in England.

Swain House constructed in Pullman, Washington, around 1917.

Example of Craftsman Style architecture.

From the description of Swain House Project, documents, 1993. (Washington State University). WorldCat record id: 48247537

Built by the Quincy Mining Company in Hancock, Michigan, the smelter used heat and chemical processes to turn copper ore into ingots. The ingots were then sold and shipped to factories where they were turned into products such as copper wire or tubing. The Quincy Smelting Works, once a major component of the Quincy Mining Company holdings, is owned by Franklin Township. The smelter complex is unique in the country and, perhaps, the world in the number and types of 19th and early 20th century buildings and landscape features that survive.

The continued survival of these structures is tenuous. Preservation of the complex is proving challenging. Since the final shutdown of the smelter in 1971, little has been done to maintain it. Severe winters and neglect have taken a sizable toll; some buildings have collapsed, others are nearly so. Franklin Township took on the property as a preservation-friendly owner, and has endeavored to find new uses for the historic complex, including simply opening it as a heritage attraction as part of Keweenaw National Historical Park (from http://www.nps.gov/kewe/parkmgmt/quincy-smelter-planning.htm, accessed June 2011).

From the description of Quincy Mining Company Smelting Works Preservation Study, 2002-2003. (Michigan Technological University). WorldCat record id: 733942773

The National Park Service was established in the Department of the Interior by an act of August 25, 1916, and was assigned duties relating to the national parks and monuments previously performed by the Office of the Secretary of the Interior. In 1933 the Service was expanded and redesignated the Office of National Parks, Buildings, and Reservations; the name National Park Service was restored in 1934. The expanded Service was placed in charge of national monuments formerly administered by the Forest Service of the Department of Agriculture and national monuments, military and battlefield parks and sites, and some national cemeteries formerly administered by the War Department. An act of August 21, 1935, provided for the establishment of national historic sites, including some owned by private organizations. Other areas established under the supervision of the Service are national memorial parks, historical parks, memorials, parkways, recreation areas, and seashores.

It is the responsibility of the National Park Service to promote and regulate use of national parks, monuments, and similar reservations in order to conserve scenery, natural and historic objects, and wildlife for the enjoyment of future generations. The Service establishes and enforces regulations for park use, protects parks from fire and other dangers, regulates concession operators, investigates and recommends proposed new areas, acquires land (including the termination of private land titles within park boundaries), and constructs and maintains roads, trails, and buildings. The Service also engages in research and guided tours and lectures, marking nature trails, maintaining museums and libraries, and preparing publications and studies in history, archeology natural history, and wildlife.

From the description of Records of the National Park Service (Record Group 79). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122578422

The Rainbow Bridge National Monument is located in San Juan County in southeastern Utah. The monument consists of 160 acres and adjoins the shores of Lake Powell. The world's largest natural bridge, Rainbow Bridge stands 290 feet tall and spans a distance of 275 feet. Its name is derived from the Navajo word "Nonnezoshi," which roughly translates to "rainbow of stone." The base of the bridge is composed of Kayenta Formation rock while the bridge's arch is Navajo Sandstone. The bridge was formed when the earth's geological forces caused an uplifting precipitated subsequent erosion of the soft sandstone deposits of the Colorado River and created several unusual geologic features such as the Grand Canyon and Rainbow Bridge. Rainbow Bridge became a National Monument by a proclamation from President William Taft on May 30, 1910.

The first publicized sighting of the Rainbow Bridge occurred on August 14, 1909. On this date, two parties of Anglo explorers and researchers led by Professor Byron Cummings of the University of Utah, and government land office surveyor William B. Douglass 'discovered' the bridge. The discovery of the Rainbow Bridge is a topic of much controversy. Though the two groups of explorers were united as one party on the date of the discovery, both party leaders, Cummings and Douglass, claimed the discovery for their own group. While this argument has never been resolved, historical evidence suggests that Cummings and Douglass were arguing a moot point. Both parties were led by Native American guides who already knew of the bridge's existence. Mike Jim, a Paiute Indian, led Douglass' expedition while Nasja Begay, also a Paiute Indian, guided the Cummings party. Begay has traditionally been recognized as the first to "see" the bridge, and in 1927 a bronze plague was installed at the base of Rainbow Bridge in his honor.

There remains much debate and controversy as to the true discoverer of Rainbow Bridge. Despite the official recognition given to Begay and the 1909 explorers, there are claims that the bridge was visited by Anglo miners in the 1880's and 1890's. These claims are substantiated by reports and descriptions of Anglo names and dates carved in the base of the Bridge at the time of the Cummings-Douglass discovery. Additionally, personal statements and affidavits given by local miners and explorers note visits to the bridge prior to the official 1909 discovery. Finally, Rainbow Bridge was undoubtedly seen and visited by Native Americans for hundreds of years before the arrival of Cummings and Douglass. This is evidenced by the presence of altars and religious manifestations at Rainbow Bridge at the time of its 1909 'discovery,' and by its traditional religious significance to local Navajo, Paiute, and Hopi Indians.

When the United States Congress and the Bureau of Reclamation began planning the construction of Glen Canyon Dam as an addition to the Colorado River Storage Project in 1958, the government initiated a controversy over the effects of water encroachment upon the bridge. The controversy centered around whether or not water from the resulting Lake Powell would submerge and weaken the foundation of the bridge. The controversy reached a boiling point in the early 1970's when the Lake Powell backed up into Bridge Canyon and threatened to reach the bridge itself. A lawsuit was filed by the Friends of the Earth in 1970 to stop the water's encroachment, and the resulting litigation eventually progressed all the way to the Supreme Court. The Friends of the Earth suit was finally rejected by the Supreme Court on the grounds that the waters of the Lake Powell did not pose a threat to the structural or aesthetic integrity of Rainbow Bridge.

Due to its isolated location and rugged surroundings, Rainbow Bridge National Monument was sparsely visited in its early years of existence. Today, the bridge is a common tourist venue because of its easy accessibility from the waters of nearby Lake Powell.

From the guide to the Rainbow Bridge National Monument Collection, 1907-1988., (Cline Library. Special Collections and Archives Department.)


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  • Historic sites--Management
  • Parks--Management
  • Parks
  • Wildlife refuges
  • Cultural property--Protection
  • Architectural Drawings
  • National parks and reserves--History--Sources
  • Music--Performance
  • Tourism
  • Architecture, Domestic
  • Architecture--Designs and plans--Working drawings
  • Conservation of natural resources
  • Vernacular architecture
  • Forests protection
  • Wilderness areas
  • Historic buildings--Montana
  • Wildlife conservation
  • National parks and reserves--Officials and employees--Correspondence
  • Architect-designed houses
  • Forest fires
  • Vegetation
  • Architecture, Victorian
  • Forests and forestry--government ownership
  • Dwellings
  • Historic sites--Interpretive programs--Research
  • Architecture--Montana
  • Rivers
  • Monuments
  • Architecture
  • Tour guides (Persons)--Licenses
  • National parks and reserves
  • Military parks--Management
  • Mountain Meadows Massacre, 1857
  • Historic parks--New Jersey
  • Historic buildings--Conservation and restoration
  • Fortification
  • Land use
  • Mountains--Directories
  • Historic sites--Conservation and restoration
  • Architecture--Designs and plans
  • Architectural rendering
  • Historic sites--New Jersey
  • Historic preservation
  • Wilderness areas--Planning
  • Tour guides (persons)
  • Historic buildings
  • Historic sites
  • Military reservations
  • Battlefields
  • Birds--1965
  • Public aquariums
  • Montana
  • Architecture--Designs and plans--Presentation drawings
  • Bridges
  • National parks and reserves--Law and legislation
  • Copper mines and mining
  • Pioneers
  • Gettysburg, Battle of, Gettysburg, Pa., 1863
  • Resorts--Directories
  • National parks and reserves--History
  • Archeology
  • Forests reserves
  • Apartment houses
  • Cultural property
  • National monuments
  • National parks and reserves--Management
  • National parks and reserves--Management--Law and legislation


not available for this record


  • Documenting nature
  • Surveying rivers


  • United States (as recorded)
  • Kansas (as recorded)
  • Alaska (as recorded)
  • Bluebell Canyon (Colo.) (as recorded)
  • Ocmulgee National Monument (Ga.) (as recorded)
  • Jackson Hole (Wyo.) (as recorded)
  • Fort Larned National Historic Site (Larned, Kan.) (as recorded)
  • Morristown (N.J.) (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Colorado--Rocky Mountain National Park (as recorded)
  • Baird Park, Gregory Canyon (Boulder County, Colo.) (as recorded)
  • McEuen Cave (Ariz.) (as recorded)
  • San Francisco (Calif.) (as recorded)
  • Longs Peak (Colo.) (as recorded)
  • Denali National Park and Preserve (as recorded)
  • Ausable Chasm (N.Y.) (as recorded)
  • Utah (as recorded)
  • San Francisco (Calif.) (as recorded)
  • Flagstaff Mountain (Boulder County, Colo.) (as recorded)
  • Fort Pulaski National Monument (Ga.) (as recorded)
  • Gettysburg National Military Park (Pa.) (as recorded)
  • Castle Clinton National Monument (New York, N.Y.) (as recorded)
  • Lee's Ferry (Ariz.) (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Storm King Mountain (N.Y.) (as recorded)
  • Washington (State)--Pullman (Wash.) (as recorded)
  • Morristown National Historical Park (N.J.) (as recorded)
  • Massachusetts--Quincy (as recorded)
  • Fire Island National Seashore (N.Y.) (as recorded)
  • Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness Area (Colo.) (as recorded)
  • Washington D.C (as recorded)
  • Washington (State)--Whitman County (as recorded)
  • Peekskill (N.Y.) (as recorded)
  • Arizona--Grand Canyon National Park (as recorded)
  • Pennsylvania--Gettysburg National Military Park (as recorded)
  • Colorado (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Colorado River (Colo.-Mexico) (as recorded)
  • Boulder (Colo.) (as recorded)
  • Michigan--Keweenaw Peninsula (as recorded)
  • Mastic (N.Y.) (as recorded)
  • Colorado (as recorded)
  • Chautauqua Mesa (Boulder, Colo.) (as recorded)
  • Maryland (as recorded)
  • Saratoga National Historical Park (N.Y.) (as recorded)
  • New York (State)--Mastic (as recorded)
  • Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (Alaska) (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania County Battlefields Memorial National Military Park (VA) (as recorded)
  • New Jersey (as recorded)
  • Alaska (as recorded)
  • Hudson River (N.Y. and N.J.) (as recorded)
  • Georgia (as recorded)
  • William Floyd Estate (Mastic, N.Y.) (as recorded)
  • Pullman (Wash.) (as recorded)
  • California--San Francisco (as recorded)
  • Hancock (Mich.) (as recorded)
  • Haverstraw (N.Y.) (as recorded)
  • Adams National Historical Park (Quincy, Mass.) (as recorded)
  • New York (N.Y.) (as recorded)
  • Rocky Mountain National Park (Colo.) (as recorded)
  • Hudson Highlands (N.Y.) (as recorded)
  • Virginia (as recorded)
  • Pennsylvania (as recorded)
  • Glen Canyon (Utah and Ariz.) (as recorded)
  • Panorama Park (Boulder County, Colo.) (as recorded)
  • California--San Francisco (as recorded)
  • Acadia National Park (Me.) (as recorded)
  • Buckingham Park (Boulder County, Colo.) (as recorded)
  • Pennsylvania--Gettysburg (as recorded)
  • Morristown (as recorded)
  • Maine--Acadia National Park (as recorded)
  • New York (State)--Long Island (as recorded)
  • New York (State) (as recorded)
  • Katmai National Park and Preserve (Alaska) (as recorded)
  • Dinosaur National Monument (Colo. and Utah) (as recorded)