Steinbeck, John, 1902-1968

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1902-02-27
Death 1968-12-20
Americans
English, Tonga (Tonga Islands)

Biographical notes:

Margaret Gemmell, later van Judah, was a friend of Steinbeck's during their stay at Stanford University, 1925-26. Included with the papers is a manuscript in her own hand describing her friendship with Steinbeck.

From the description of John Steinbeck papers, 1925-1978. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 754866392

This is the producer's copy, property of Oscar Serlin; the play ran from 7 Apr. to 6 June, 1942.

From the description of The moon is down, a play in 3 acts : carbon typescript, producer's copy, 1942. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 754863218

John Ernst Steinbeck was born in Salinas, California 27 February 1902. He was the author of short stories and novels, of which some became plays and films. He died in New York City 20 December 1968.

From the description of John Steinbeck collection, 1902-1979. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 462018810

American novelist John Steinbeck, 1902-1956, wrote primarily on themes that reflected his upbringing in the California Central Valley city of Salinas. Noted for his socially critical work, his writing won many awards including the Pulitzer Prize in 1940 and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1968.

From the description of John Steinbeck Publication proofs and letters, 1954-1956. (University of New Mexico-Main Campus). WorldCat record id: 46425709

From the guide to the John Steinbeck Publication Proofs and Letters, 1954-1956, (University of New Mexico. Center for Southwest Research.)

John Steinbeck was one of the most widely read and anthologized American authors of the 20th century, best known for his allegorical novels of the working classes, notably Of Mice and Men and The Grapes of Wrath. Born in Salinas, California, which would provide the setting for many of his works, Steinbeck attended Stanford University but left without taking a degree. He worked in various jobs, developing a pro-labor viewpoint, and published several novels before finding success with Tortilla Flat in 1935. He wrote for several newspapers, including an overseas stint as a war correspondent in World War II, and his research on the Dust Bowl, which included living with migrant workers for two years, led to The Grapes of Wrath, which won the Pulitzer Prize. His later novels were popular bestsellers, but met with indifference from critics; he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962.

From the description of John Steinbeck pamphlets, 1942-1947. (Pennsylvania State University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 320713539

Shirley Fisher was a senior partner at Macintosh and Otis, Steinbeck's literary agents. She and her husband Jack were also close personal friends of John and Elaine Steinbeck.

From the description of John Steinbeck letters to Shirley Fisher, 1959-1962. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 503422561

Steinbeck had made an agreement with Mark Ethridge, the publisher of the Louisville Courier-Journal, to do a series of articles on the political conventions in 1956. Ethridge put together a syndicate of almost forty other papers around the country that would also carry Steinbeck's convention coverage. Steinbeck and Adalai Stevenson became friends during the convention, and later Steinbeck sent speech material to the Stevenson campaign.

From the description of John Steinbeck correspondence and writings relating to the party conventions for the 1956 presidential candidates, 1949-1964. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 754865333

American novelist; resident of Salinas, Calif.

From the description of Papers, 1955-1982. (Duke University Library). WorldCat record id: 32935285

American writer.

From the description of Steinbeck, 1953 [New York]: Columbia Masterworks, [manuscript]. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647809646

From the description of Papers of John Steinbeck [manuscript], 1957. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647975320

During his stay in Paris in 1954 Steinbeck wrote 17 articles for LE FIGARO. He contacted Leslie S. (Lee) Brady, then U.S. Public Affairs Officer in charge of Press, Information and Cultural Affairs (USIA) to review his manuscripts before submission, hoping to insure that he not inadvertantly offend French sensibilities and damage the delicate Franco-American relations of the time. The two maintained their friendship throuh the following years, and in 1963 Steinbeck was able to travel to the Soviet Union to meet writers and intellectuals through the auspices of Lee Brady who at that time was Assistant Director of USIA for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

From the description of Letters to Leslie S. Brady, 1954-1964. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122448182

Original screenplay by John Steinbeck.

From the description of Viva Zapata! : lobby cards for the 20th Century-Fox release of the film, 1952. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 754872605

John Steinbeck was an American novelist, playwright, screenwriter, essayist, and short-story writer.

From the description of John Steinbeck collection of papers, 1937-[1962]. (New York Public Library). WorldCat record id: 122485877

From the guide to the John Steinbeck collection of papers, 1937-[1962, (The New York Public Library. Henry W. and Albert A. Berg Collection of English and American Literature.)

Steinbeck was an American author. Powell (1906-2001) was University Librarian at the University of California at Los Angeles and director of their William Andrews Clark Memorial Library.

From the description of Letters to Lawrence Clark Powell and essays, 1936-1939. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 84670142

From the guide to the Letters to Lawrence Clark Powell and essays, 1936-1939., (Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University)

American film producer, Jules Buck was working as a script writer for producer Darryl Zanuck at Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation in 1949. He worked very closely with Steinbeck on the first draft of the screenplay for "Zapata." Elia Kazan was the director.

From the description of Correspondence with Jules Buck, 1949-1954. (Stanford University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 122644657

Author. Full name: John Ernst Steinbeck.

From the description of John Steinbeck papers, 1939-1962 (bulk 1939-1941). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70981932

Mexican film producer.

From the description of Preservation photocopy of a carbon copy of a typed letter : [New York], to Oscar Danziggers [i.e., Dancigers], 1948 June 29. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 776721927

John Steinbeck, one of the greatest American writers of the 20th Century, was born in Salinas, CA on February 27, 1902. He attended Stanford University from 1919 to 1925, and subsequently wrote many notable works, among them Tortilla Flat, Cannery Row, the Grapes of Wrath, and East of Eden. Many of Steinbeck's novels were set in the Central California Coast, where he was born and spent much of his life. Steinbeck won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962, and died in New York on December 20, 1968.

From the description of John Steinbeck letters. (California State Library). WorldCat record id: 171184104

Steinbeck met Street at Stanford; they remained life-long friends.

From the description of John Steinbeck letters to Webster (Toby) Street, 1931-1968. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 462505495

American author.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : London, to "Alicia," [1966 Feb. 19]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779623005

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Tel Aviv, to "Alicia," [1966] Feb. 12. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779629308

From the description of Autograph letter signed : " Allover the place" [Vietnam], to "Alicia," [1967 Jan. 13]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780180306

From the description of Letters, 1960-1962, to Robert Wallsten. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122571536

From the description of Carbon copy of an autograph letter signed : [Viet Nam], to "Alicia," [1967 Jan.]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780078899

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Sag Harbor, New York], to Max Lerner, [1965 Dec. 4]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779411774

From the description of [Viva Zapata!] : carbon copy of a synopsis, [ca. 1949 May 13]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 775017824

From the description of [Viva Zapata!] : mimeographed portion of the screenplay, [ca. 1949 May 13]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 775016699

From the description of Papers of John Steinbeck [manuscript], 1932-1974. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647823891

From the description of The grapes of wrath [manuscript], 1939. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647829659

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [London], to "Alicia," [1965 Dec. 24]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779348870

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Sag Harbor, New York], to "Alicia," [1966 Apr. 30]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779353915

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Sag Harbor, New York], to "Alicia," [1965 Nov. 20]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779353717

From the description of Autograph letter : [Abbotsford, Scotland] to "Alicia," [1966 Jan. 8]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779498006

From the description of Autograph letter : [London], to "Alicia," [1966 Jan. 7]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779499042

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Sag Harbor, New York], to "Alicia," [1966 May 21]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779475920

From the description of Photocopy of a typed letter : place not specified, to Lt. General H.H. Arnold, 1942 July 18. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 775606869

From the description of Autograph letter signed : New York, to "Alicia," [1966 Dec. 10]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779937454

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Haifa, Israel, to "Alicia," [1966 Apr. 9]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779850076

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Sag Harbor, New York], to "Alicia," [1965 Dec. 11]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779196439

From the description of Carbon copy of a typescript, [1943]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 775798886

From the description of Autograph letter signed : New York, N.Y., to the Director of the Morgan Library, 1956 Dec. 20. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270575160

From the description of Manuscript and typescript drafts of his address before The Swedish Academy on receiving the Nobel Prize for Literature : Stockholm, 1962 Dec. 10. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270574212

From the description of Collection of autograph letters signed : various places, to "Alicia", 1965-1966. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270580987

From the description of Autograph letters signed (2) : Sag Harbor, N.Y., to Dr. Curt F. Bühler, 1966 Mar. 18-1966 May 3. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270580276

From the description of Autograph letter signed : "Saigon-on-Styx", to "Alicia," [1967 Feb.]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780303495

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Saigon, to "Alicia," [1967 Feb. 4]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780308313

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Pleiku], to "Alicia," [1967 Jan. 28]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780302129

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Saigon], to "Alicia," [1967 Feb. 11]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780319626

From the description of Carbon copy of a typed letter : [Sag Harbor, New York], to Harry [Guggenheim], 1965 Aug. 14. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 774407684

From the description of The short reign of Pippin IV [manuscript], 1957. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647833250

From the description of Carbon copy of an autograph letter signed : [Vietnam], to "Alicia," [1967 Jan.]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780070057

From the description of Autograph letter signed : place not specified to "Alicia," [1965-1967]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779478883

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Honolulu, Hawaii, to "Alicia," [1966 Dec]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779967493

From the description of Autograph letter signed : place not specified, to "Alicia," [1966 Dec. 17]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779937628

From the description of Autograph letter signed : place not specified, to "Alicia," [1966 Dec.]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779966487

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Haifa, Israel], to "Alicia," [1966 Apr. 16]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779850252

From the description of Autograph letter signed : New York, to "Alicia," [1966 Nov. 16]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779857554

From the description of Autograph letter signed : New York, N.Y., to Dr. Curt F. Bühler, 1960 Apr. 7. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270575164

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Saigon], to "Alicia," [1967 Feb. 4]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780299040

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Saigon], to "Alicia," [1967 Feb. 11]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780319532

From the description of Autograph letters signed (3) : Los Gatos and Sag Harbor, to Claire Luce, 1938 Jan.-1963 Aug. 12. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270580339

From the description of Autograph letter signed : London, to "Alicia," 1965 Dec. 2. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779489520

From the description of Sea of Cortez : On board to "Western Flyer" in the Gulf of California : autograph manuscript unsigned of the first draft, 1940. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270581088

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Pleiku, to "Alicia," [1967 Jan. 28]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780291902

From the description of Carbon copy of an autograph letter signed : Alnwick, England, to "Alicia," 1965 Dec. 13. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779491761

From the description of Photographs, 1945. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122560512

From the description of Movie stills from The Moon Is Down, 1940. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 30793567

From the description of John Steinbeck Collection, 1926-1977. (Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center (HRC); University of Texas at Austin). WorldCat record id: 122617079

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Tel Aviv, to "Alicia," [1966 Feb. 26]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779621800

From the description of Autograph letter signed : "Tiberias, in the Galilee", to "Alicia," 1966 Feb. 16. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779630764

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Tel Aviv] Israel, to "Alicia," [1966 Mar. 5]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779626953

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Haifa], to "Alicia," [1966 Mar. 12]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779640804

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Haifa, Israel], to "Alicia," [1966 Mar. 26]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779636109

From the description of Carbon copy of an autograph letter signed : [Saigon], to "Alicia," [1967 Jan. 19]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780170163

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Vietnam], to "Alicia," [1967 Jan. 12]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780180349

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Sag Harbor, New York], to "Alicia," [1966 May 7]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 774718297

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Can Tho, Vietnam, to "Alicia," [1967 Jan. 21]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780174725

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Can Tho, Vietnam, to "Alicia," [1967 Jan. 21]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780176663

From the description of Autograph journal, 1948. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 774047932

From the description of Autograph letter signed : London, to "Alicia," 1966 Jan 25. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779548081

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Galway, Ireland, to "Alicia," [1966 Feb. 5]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779542833

From the description of Autograph journal, 1951. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 774049829

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Galway, Ireland], to "Alicia," [1966 Jan. 29]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779538839

From the description of Autograph journal, 1950. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 774048899

From the description of Autograph journal, 1952. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 774049938

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Galway, Ireland, to "Alicia," 1966 Jan. 22. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779534301

From the description of Autograph letter : Waterville, Ireland, to "Alicia," [1966 Jan. 15]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779543360

From the description of Autograph journal, 1951. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 774048170

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Saigon, to "Alicia," [1966 Dec. 24]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779978729

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Saigon, to "Alicia," [1966 Dec. 31]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779975929

From the description of Autograph and typed letters signed (18) : Florence, Paris, New York, London, Discover Cottage (Bruton, Somerset), and [n.p.], to Graham and Dorothy Watson, 1954-1966 and [n.d.]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270872297

From the description of The acts of King Arthur and his noble knights : autograph and typed manuscripts (2) of the introduction : [n.p., n.d.]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270870128

From the description of Autograph letters signed (42) : [n.p., n.d.]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270872295

From the description of Letters, ca. 16 Feb. and 23 Feb. 1939, to Virginia and Remo Scardigli. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122398003

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Sag Harbor, New York], to "Alicia," [1966 May 28]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779381940

From the description of Carbon copy of an autograph letter signed : [Viet Nam], to "Alicia," [1967 Jan. 7]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780084003

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Pleiku, to "Alicia," [1967 Jan. 7]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780081768

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Saigon, to "Alicia," [1967 Jan. 14]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780106096

From the description of Autograph letter signed : "Pundit Manor", Saigon, to "Alicia," [1967 Jan. 7]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780093256

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Saigon, to "Alicia," [1967 Jan. 14]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780101837

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Saigon], to "Alicia," [1966] Dec. 26. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780100171

From the description of Autograph letter : place not specified, to "Alicia," [1965-1967]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779385678

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Sag Harbor, New York], to "Alicia," [1965 Nov. 27]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779408631

From the description of Carbon copy of an autograph letter signed : "Dialectic Dementia" [Viet Nam], to "Alicia," [1967 Jan. 5]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 780097541

From the description of Typescripts, a memorandum, letters and printed matter related to the stage production of Of Men and Men : New York, 1937. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 776886666

From the description of Movie stills from The Moon Is Down [manuscript], 1940. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647836143

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [Sag Harbor, New York], to "Alicia," [1966 May 14]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779365210

Author.

From the description of Letter, 1953. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 155560986

American film producer.

From the description of Carbon copy of a typed letter signed : [New York], to Darryl Zanuck, undated [ca. 1950 May]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 777975524

Born in 1902, the third of four children, John Steinbeck was the only son of John Ernst and Olive Hamilton Steinbeck. Raised in the family home in Salinas, California, Steinbeck roamed the woods and explored Monterey Bay and the Big Sur. He was not a motivated student, but he knew from an early age that he wanted to write. He graduated from Salinas High School in 1919 and entered Stanford University, which he attended intermittently until 1925. He often took time off in order to earn money for the following term's tuition and took a variety of jobs including clerk, surveyor, and ranch hand. In 1923 Steinbeck took a class in marine biology which sparked a life long interest in the subject. He left Stanford in 1925 without graduating.

Steinbeck began writing fiction in college and published a few pieces in the school paper. When he left school he decided New York was the place for an aspiring writer to be, so he took a job on a freighter and headed East. Less than a year later, discouraged by his lack of success, he returned to California on another steamer. He spent the next couple of years working as a handyman and caretaker at a Lake Tahoe estate and in February 1928 he finished his first novel Cup of Gold. Later that year he met Carol Henning, whom he would marry two years later. At the end of the year he moved to San Francisco, where Henning had a job, moved in with a friend who was also a budding writer, and began working on his second novel.

Cup of Gold was published in 1929 and Steinbeck and Henning were married in 1930. The couple lived simply, largely supported by Steinbeck's father. Steinbeck published Pastures of Heaven (1932) and To a God Unknown (1933) in quick succession, but the bankruptcy of his publisher left him without any consistent means of income from his writing. The couple moved into the Steinbeck family's cottage in Pacific Grove and, as the grip of the Depression tightened, lived largely on what they could grow or catch in the sea. Steinbeck traveled in California a great deal during the Depression and he wrote about what he saw. What some critics consider his greatest works were published during the thirties including Tortilla Flat (1935), Of Mice and Men (1937), The Red Pony (1937), and The Grapes of Wrath (1939).

Early in 1941 Steinbeck separated from Henning and in the fall moved to New York City with Gwyndolyn Conger. His divorce became final in 1942 leaving him free to marry Conger in early 1943. Steinbeck left almost immediately to travel to Europe as a foreign correspondent for the New York Herald Tribune. Gwyndolyn had two children with Steinbeck, Thom in 1944 and John in 1946. The couple moved back and forth between New York and California during the forties and divorced in 1948.

Steinbeck met his third wife, Elaine Scott, in 1949 and they married in 1950. They lived primarily in the New York City area, spending part of each winter in Mexico or other warm climes, and in 1955 they bought a summer cottage in Sag Harbor. Steinbeck continued to write, varying his steady stream of novels with plays and screen adaptations. Many of his novels were performed on stage or made into movies. In 1960, despite illness, Steinbeck took a cross-country trip with only a French poodle for company. The diary of this trip became Travels with Charley (1962). His last novel, The Winter of Our Discontent, was published in 1961. After traveling to Stockholm in 1962 to accept the Nobel Prize for Literature, Steinbeck's health began to decline. He had been suffering small strokes for several years, and they began to worsen. He died at home in 1968.

From the guide to the John Steinbeck Collection TXRC00-A9., 1926-1977, (Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas at Austin)

Biography / Administrative History

John Ernst Steinbeck was born in Salinas, California 27 February 1902. He was the author of short stories and novels, of which some became plays and films. He died in New York City 20 December 1968.

From the guide to the John Steinbeck collection, 1902-1979, (Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives)

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Subjects:

  • Critics
  • Arthur, King--Fiction
  • Authors, American--20th century--Archives
  • California in literature
  • Authors, American
  • Depression--1930s
  • Authors, American--20th century--Biography
  • African Americans--Civil rights
  • 1938 05 00̮
  • Community life--Fiction
  • Motion pictures
  • Authors, American--20th century--Friends and associates
  • Neurasthenia
  • World War, 1939-1945--Psychological aspects
  • Literary agents
  • Authors and publishers
  • Novelists, American--20th century--Archives
  • Marine animals
  • Divorce
  • Migrant agricultural laborers--Fiction
  • Book reviewing
  • Authors and readers
  • Male authors, American--20th century
  • Nobel Prizes--1962
  • Authors, American--20th century--Correspondence
  • Deafness
  • Authors, American--20th century
  • Sound recordings and the arts
  • Authors, American--20th century--Correspondence--Sources
  • Western stories--History and criticism
  • Nobel prizes
  • Depression--1930s--United States
  • Motion picture plays
  • Community life--Monterey, California--Fiction
  • Finance, Personal
  • American literature--20th century--History and criticism
  • Novelists, American--20th century--Homes and haunts
  • Arthurian romances
  • Theater critics
  • World War, 1939-1945
  • American literature
  • American literature--20th century

Occupations:

  • Authors
  • Authors, American
  • Writer, Prose, Fiction and Nonfiction

Places:

  • United States (as recorded)
  • Cannery Row (Monterey, Calif.) (as recorded)
  • Italy (as recorded)
  • Monterey, California (as recorded)
  • America (as recorded)
  • America (as recorded)
  • California (as recorded)
  • Mexico--California, Gulf of (as recorded)
  • Paris (France) (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Capri Island (Italy) (as recorded)
  • California (as recorded)
  • Italy (as recorded)
  • Capri Island (Italy) (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • California, Gulf of (Mexico) (as recorded)
  • Salinas (Calif.) (as recorded)
  • Mexico--California, Gulf of (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.) (as recorded)