Churchill, Winston, 1874-1965

Alternative names
Birth 1874-11-30
Death 1965-01-24

Biographical notes:

Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill was born at Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, on 30 November 1874. He was educated at Harrow and the Royal Military College at Sandhurst before joining the Army in 1895 and serving in India and Sudan. After leaving the Army in 1899, he worked as a war correspondent for the Morning Post and the following year was elected Conservative Member of Parliament for Oldham. In 1904, Churchill decided to join the Liberal Party, and in 1906, was elected Liberal MP for North-West Manchester and was immediately appointed under-secretary of State for the Colonies. In 1908, he was promoted president of the Board of Trade and introduced important social legislation, including the establishment of employment exchanges.

In 1910, Churchill was appointed home secretary, introducing several reforms to the prison system, and the following year, became First Lord of the Admiralty. In 1912, he set up the Royal Naval Air Service and also established an Air Department at the Admiralty. On the outbreak of the First World War, Churchill joined the War Council, but after the failure of the Dardanelles Campaign in 1915, he was moved to the post of chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. He rejoined the Army, commanding a battalion on the Western Front and in 1917, resumed office as Minister of Munitions. Between 1919 and 1920, Churchill served as Minister of War and Air and from 1921 to 1922 as Colonial Secretary. In the general election of 1922, Churchill was defeated at Dundee, and after rejoining the Conservative Party, was successfully elected as MP for Epping in 1924. He was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer but lost office in 1929 with the defeat of the Conservative government.

On the outbreak of the Second World War, Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty and in April 1940, became chairman of the Military Co-ordinating Committee. After the resignation of Neville Chamberlain, Churchill was appointed Prime Minister in May 1940 and he formed a coalition government. Throughout the war he provided strong leadership and was a brilliant orator, and on 8 May 1945, Churchill declared the war in Europe finally at an end.

After a landslide victory by the Labour Party in the general election of 1945, Churchill became leader of the opposition, returning to office in the general election of 1951. In 1953, Churchill was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature and was knighted. His health continued to deteriorate and in 1955, he retired from politics. In 1960, Churchill College in Cambridge was founded as a memorial and in 1964; he became its first honorary fellow. He died on 24 January 1965.

From the guide to the Winston Churchill, Antarctic correspondence collection, 1913, (Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge)

Sir Winston Churchill was an English politician, essayist, biographer, and writer of historical and political literature.

From the description of Sir Winston Churchill collection of papers, [1898?]-1954 bulk (1910-1954). (New York Public Library). WorldCat record id: 86164226

From the guide to the Sir Winston Churchill collection of papers, 1898?]-1954, 1910-1954, (The New York Public Library. Henry W. and Albert A. Berg Collection of English and American Literature.)

British statesman and author.

From the description of Collection relating to Sir Winston Churchill, 1943-1946. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79453343

Sir Winston Churchill was born November 30, 1874 to Lord and Lady Randolph Churchill. A Conservative member of the British Parliament since 1900, Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty at the outbreak of the Second World War. In May 1940, he became Prime Minister and Minister of Defense, where he served until 1945. Throughout his lifetime Churchill earned many honors including a Knighthood and the insignia of the Order of the Garter in 1953, honorary citizenship in the United States in 1963, and a state funeral upon his death on January 24, 1965.

In addition to his distinguished political career, Churchill was a renowned author. In 1953 he received the Nobel Prize in Literature in recognition of his many published works, such as his six volume set The Second World War . In 1905 Churchill began corresponding with author and editor Frank Harris regarding the biography Churchill was writing about his father. Churchill eventually granted Harris permission to begin negotiating with various publishers. The book, Lord Randolph Churchill, was published by Macmillan Publishers in 1906.

From the guide to the Winston Churchill Letters, 1905, (Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries)

Winston Churchill (1874-1965) was a British politician who led Great Britain as Prime Minister during World War II (1939-1945).

Jesse Merritt (1889-1957) was a Quaker resident of Farmingdale in Nassau County, Long Island, N.Y. He was an historian of the Nassau County region and President of Bethpage Press in Farmingdale.

From the guide to the Winston Churchill letter to Jesse Merritt, 1943, (Brooklyn Historical Society)

Epithet: Prime Minister

Title: Knight

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000000621.0x0002bd


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  • Universities and colleges--Great Britain
  • Prime ministers--Great Britain
  • English literature--20th century
  • Statesmen--Great Britain
  • World War, 1939-1945
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  • Dunkirk, Battle of, Dunkerque, France, 1940
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  • London, ENG, GB
  • Oxfordshire, ENG, GB