Jackson, Andrew, 1767-1845

Alternative names
Dates:
Active
Birth 1767
Death 1848
Birth 1767-03-15
Death 1845-06-08
Americans
English

Biographical notes:

Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) was the seventh President of the United States (1829-1837) as well as a lawyer, general, and legislator. Born in the Carolinas, he served as a courier during the Revolutionary War. He read for the law during his teen years and became a lawyer in Tennessee by 1787. The first U. S. Representative for Tennessee (1796), Jackson was elected to the Senate in 1797, resigned in 1798, and served as a judge on the Tennessee Supreme Court, 1798-1804. He was later reelected to the Senate in 1822.

As a major general during the war of 1812, Jackson defeated the British at New Orleans in 1815. Additionally, he fought in the Creek Wars and the Seminole War and became the Military Governor of Florida in 1819 after Spain ceded the territory to the U. S.

Jackson ran for president in 1824 and won the popular and electoral votes. However, he did not win a majority and the House gave the Presidency to John Quincy Adams. He successfully ran for president in 1828, defeating Adams. During his controversial presidency Jackson dissolved the national bank, weathered the Nullification crisis, supported and implemented the removal of Indians to western territories, and instituted the modern system of patronage in politics. In 1837, Jackson retired to his plantation, the Hermitage, and died there in 1845.

Sources:

American Presidents. “Andrew Jackson Biography.” History Empire. http://www.american-presidents.com/andrew-jackson (accessed July 22, 2010)

The Whitehouse. ”Andrew Jackson.” The Whitehouse. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/andrewjackson (accessed July 22, 2010)

From the guide to the Jackson, Andrew, Collection 73-065; 2011-214., 1812-1845, 1916, and undated, (Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin)

Andrew Jackson was born in South Carolina, shortly after the death of his father. In 1779, at the age of twelve, he and his brother, Robert, fought in the Revolutionary War. Both boys were captured and caught smallpox while British prisoners. While their mother, Elizabeth Hutchins, was able to arrange for their release, Robert died of complications from the illness. Two years later, Elizabeth died while tending to sick soldiers in 1781. These losses left Jackson an orphan at the age of fourteen. He moved to Charleston and began to study law. He then moved to Tennessee where he practiced law, as well as married Rachel Robards. When Tennessee became a state in 1796, Jackson was elected to the Constitutional Convention. He also served in the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1802, Jackson was commissioned a Major-General in the Tennessee Militia. He fought in the War of 1812 and famously defended New Orleans. In 1823 Jackson served on the U.S. Senate. He ran for the presidency in 1824, but lost the election; he won in 1828, and was re-elected in 1832. During his adult life, Andrew Jackson lived on "The Hermitage" plantation, near Nashville, Tennessee, where he grew cotton.

From the description of Andrew Jackson letter, 1820. (Georgia Historical Society). WorldCat record id: 85450373

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Subjects:

  • Chesapeake--Leopard Affair, 1807
  • Presidents--Inaugural addresses
  • Burr Conspiracy, 1805-1807
  • United States. Navy--History--19th century
  • Creek Indians--Government relations
  • Slave trade
  • Seminole Indians
  • New Orleans, Battle of, New Orleans, La., 1815
  • Practice of law
  • United States--History--Tripolitan War, 1801-1805
  • Presidents--Autographs
  • State rights
  • Creek War, 1813-1814
  • Seminole War, 1st, 1817-1818--Correspondence
  • Land owners
  • Military roads
  • Seminole Indians--Wars
  • Governors--Powers and duties
  • Campaign literature
  • Horse racing
  • Horses
  • Practice of law--Tennessee
  • Hatters--Correspondence
  • Indians of North America--Treaties, 1816
  • Presidents--Biography--Sources
  • Nullification (States' rights)
  • United States. Navy--History--Tripolitan War, 1801-1805
  • Political cartoons
  • presidents
  • Land grants
  • Presidents--United States
  • Cherokee Indians--Government relations
  • Chicksaw Indians--Treaties
  • Papermaking machinery
  • Presidents--Election--1828
  • Broadsides
  • Politicians--Biographies--Sources
  • Slavery--History--19th century
  • Banks and banking--History--Sources
  • Presidents--19th century
  • Hats
  • Cotton trade--19th century
  • Governor
  • Indians of North America--Government relations
  • Toledo War, 1835
  • Depressions--1836-1837
  • Seminole War, 2nd, 1835-1842
  • Government spending policy
  • Cherokee Indians--Treaties
  • Creek Indians
  • Patents--United States
  • Emigration and immigration
  • Courts-martial and courts of inquiry--United States
  • Seminole Indians--Government relations
  • Merchants
  • Indians of North America--Wars--1815-1875
  • Dueling--Virginia
  • Presidents--Inauguration--1837
  • Real property
  • Patents
  • Presidents--United States--19th century
  • Indians of North America
  • Slavery--Law and legislation
  • Surveying--History--19th century
  • Diplomats
  • Presidents--Correspondence
  • Jackson, Andrew, 1767-1845
  • Mexican War, 1846-1848
  • Patents--19th century
  • Creek Indians--History--19th century
  • Soldiers--Biography--Sources
  • Subject: Inventions--History--United States
  • Presidents--Election--1824--Sources
  • Dueling
  • Land titles
  • 1837 March 11
  • Land tenure--History--Sources
  • Seminole War, 1st--1817-1818
  • Smithsonian Endowment

Occupations:

  • Presidents
  • Army officers
  • Cabinet officers
  • Senators, U.S. Congress--Tennessee
  • Representatives, U.S. Congress--Tennessee
  • Soldiers
  • Presidents--United States

Places:

  • Tennessee (as recorded)
  • West Florida (as recorded)
  • Arkansas (as recorded)
  • Florida (as recorded)
  • Michigan (as recorded)
  • Arkansas (as recorded)
  • Detroit (Mich.) (as recorded)
  • Missouri (as recorded)
  • Mobile (Ala.) (as recorded)
  • Michigan (as recorded)
  • Michigan (as recorded)
  • Louisiana (as recorded)
  • Natchez Trace (as recorded)
  • Tennessee (as recorded)
  • Lancaster County (S.C.) (as recorded)
  • Southern States (as recorded)
  • Kentucky (as recorded)
  • Mobile (Ala.) (as recorded)
  • Sweden (as recorded)
  • Louisiana (as recorded)
  • Chickasaw Bluffs (Tenn.) (as recorded)
  • Washington (D.C.) (as recorded)
  • Waxhaws Region (S.C.) (as recorded)
  • Ohio (as recorded)
  • Florida (as recorded)
  • Newport (Ky.) (as recorded)
  • Georgia (as recorded)
  • Mobile (Ala.) (as recorded)
  • California (as recorded)
  • Indiana--Vincennes (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Spain (as recorded)
  • Texas. (as recorded)
  • Andrew Jackson Historical State Park (S.C.) (as recorded)
  • Alabama (as recorded)
  • Fort Jackson (La.) (as recorded)
  • Alabama (as recorded)