Hale, George Ellery, 1868-1938

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1868-06-29
Death 1938-02-21
Americans
English

Biographical notes:

George Ellery Hale was an astrophysicist. He was the organizer and director of the Mount Wilson Observatory of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 1904-1923, and was honorary director until his death in 1938. His principal scientific researches were made in stellar spectroscopy.

From the description of Papers, 1903-1935. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 82798019

From the description of Papers, 1882-1937. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122523501

From the guide to the George Ellery Hale papers, 1882-1937, 1882-1937, (American Philosophical Society)

Astronomer (spectroscopy, solar and stellar physics). On the astrophysics faculty at University of Chicago, 1892-1905; director, Yerkes Observatory, 1895-1905; and director, Mount Wilson Observatory, Carnegie Institution, 1904-1923.

From the description of Papers [microform], 1882-1938. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79025413

Astronomer (spectroscopy, solar and stellar physics). On the astrophysics faculty at the University of Chicago, 1892-1905; director Yerkes Observatory, 1895-1905; and director, Mount Wilson Observatory, Carnegie Institution, 1904-1923.

From the description of Letters to Harry Manley Goodwin [microform], 1887-1937. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79089754

Astrophysicist (stellar spectroscopy). Professor of astrophysics, University of Chicago and director, Yerkes Observatory, 1895-1905; founder and director of the Mount Wilson Observatory of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 1904-1923.

From the description of Papers, 1882-1938. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 84276268

George Ellery Hale, astronomer, was born in Chicago and educated at M.I.T., Harvard College Observatory, and the Univ. of Berlin. A specialist in solar and stellar spectroscopy, Hale organized the Kenwood Astrophysical Observatory for the Univ. of Chicago (and served as its director until 1896), where he also invented and developed the spectroheliograph, established the Astrophysical journal, and served as the director of the Yerkes Observatory. In 1904 Hale moved to Pasadena, California, where he organized the Mount Wilson Observatory, served as its director until 1923, and was instrumental in the construction of the 200-inch reflecting telescope at Mount Palomar. Hale received numerous awards and honors in the international scientific community and was a leading force in the cultural and scientific growth of the Pasadena area. He served on the original board of trustees of the Huntington Library.

From the description of Correspondence of George Ellery Hale, 1887-1937. (Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens). WorldCat record id: 122584653

From the description of Mount Wilson Director's papers, 1901-1925. (Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens). WorldCat record id: 122540487

Astrophysicist.

From the description of Papers of George Ellery Hale, 1882-1938. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 71068765

Biography

George Ellery Hale's papers reflect the wide diversity of his activities and accomplishments. Born in Chicago in 1868, he received his B.S. from M. I. T. in 1890. Active in the development of astrophysics, he quickly established a distinguished scientific reputation for his invention of the spectroheliograph. He made important contributions to the study of solar phenomena, organized and co-edited the Astrophysical Journal, and was the leading figure in the design, funding and construction of the Kenwood, Yerkes, Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories.

Hale was also exceedingly energetic in the organization and promotion of the enterprise of science, both at home and abroad. In the United States he played a highly influential role in the National Academy of Sciences. He revivified the Academy almost single-handedly by organizing the National Research Council, obtaining substantial endowment for the NAS, and establishing the critically important National Research Council Fellowships. A founder of the International Union of Cooperation in Solar Research, Foreign Secretary of the National Academy of Sciences, and a frequent delegate to the International Association of Academies, he became deeply involved in the international relations of science before the First World War. Instrumental in the establishment of the International Research Council after the war, he was president of its successor, the International Council of Scientific Unions from 1931 to 1934.

Hale settled in Pasadena, California in 1904 to assume the duties of Director of the newly established Mount Wilson Observatory and became deeply involved in the educational and cultural affairs of the area. Among his most important efforts were the creation and development of the California Institute of Technology and the Huntington Library. The Hale collection provides an unusually complete record of his activities.

From the guide to the George Ellery Hale papers, 1882-1938, (California Institute of Technology. Archives. Boxes 1-147 and addenda (3 boxes) (Personal Papers), California Institute of Technology, )

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Subjects:

  • Spectrohelioscope--Research
  • Astronomical observatories--Planning
  • Astronomy
  • Astronomical instruments
  • Science--History--20th century
  • Astronomical observatories--United States
  • Astronomical spectroscopy
  • Astronomy--History--20th century--Sources
  • Universities and colleges
  • Scientific literature
  • Spectrum analysis
  • Space sciences--Research
  • Research
  • Astronomy--History--Sources
  • Science and state
  • Scientists--Correspondence
  • Science and state--United States
  • Astronomical observatories
  • Fund raising
  • Spectroheliograph
  • Scientists--International cooperation
  • Astronomy--Research
  • Astronomical observatories--Administration
  • Spectrohelioscope
  • Astrophysics
  • Astronomers--Correspondence
  • Astronomical observatories--Planning--United States
  • Science

Occupations:

  • Astronomers--United States
  • Astronomers--Archives
  • Astrophysicists--Archives
  • Physicists
  • Astronomers

Places:

  • United States (as recorded)
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  • Vicksburg (Miss.) (as recorded)
  • Sun (as recorded)
  • Mississippi (as recorded)
  • California--Wilson, Mount (as recorded)
  • California--Wilson, Mount (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • California (as recorded)
  • Illinois (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)