Banks, Joseph, 1743-1820

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1743-02-13
Death 1820-06-19
GB
Spanish; Castilian, Latin, English, French, Greek, Modern (1453-)

Biographical notes:

José Francisco Correia da Serra was a Portuguese scholar, naturalist and diplomat.

From the guide to the José Francisco Correia da Serra letters, 1810-1823, 1810-1823, (American Philosophical Society)

English naturalist

From the guide to the Sir Joseph Banks letters, 1802, 1803, 1804, (The New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division.)

Scientist and explorer. President of the Royal Society.

From the description of Letters and papers [manuscript]. 1745-1814. (Libraries Australia). WorldCat record id: 225836171

Roy died in 1790 while revising proof sheets of An account of the trigonometrical operations by which the distance between the meridians of the Royal Observatories of Greenwich and Paris has been determined, for the Royal Society; reference is probably to that work. Military antiquities of the Romans in Britain was not issued until 1793, by the Society of Antiquaries.

From the description of Letter, [1790?], to M. Jeaurat. (Dartmouth College Library). WorldCat record id: 5327084

Sir Joseph Banks was an English naturalist and president of the Royal Society.

From the description of Papers, 1766-1820 (bulk). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 173465701

From the guide to the Sir Joseph Banks papers, 1766-1820 (bulk), 1766-1820, (American Philosophical Society)

Sir Joseph Banks, baronet (1743-1820), was naturalist and patron of science. Showing an interest in natural history from his time at Eton, in 1766 he became a fellow of the Royal Society and a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. Several years later, he joined the Endeavour expedition captained by James Cook, which gave him the opportunity to explore a part of the world hitherto vitually unknown to Europe. The voyage's chief purpose was to observe the transit of Venus at Tahiti. The Endeavour remained there for three months, during which time Banks studied the flora and fauna of the island as well as observed and interacted with the indigenous society there. The Endeavour then went on to explore New Zealand, New Holland, and Australia. Returning to England, Banks was lavishly feted and introduced to George III, to whom he became a close friend and adviser. In 1773 he was appointed the virtual director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, transforming it into an internationally renowned scientific institution. He became president of the Royal Society in 1778, from which position he became involved in various national and international affairs, both political and scientific, for many years. He received a baronetcy in 1781 and died in 1820.

From the description of Correspondence, 1785-1809. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 702178095

Sir Joseph Banks was born in London, England on February 13, 1743. He served on a scientific expedition to Newfoundland and Labrador (1766) and with Captain Cook's expedition to observe the transit of Venus in the Pacific Ocean. Banks also travelled to Iceland (1772). He served as president of the Royal Society from 1778 until his death in 1820.

From the description of Sir Joseph Banks papers, 1763-1830 (inclusive). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122590153

From the description of Sir Joseph Banks papers, 1763-1830 (inclusive). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 702160801

From the guide to the Sir Joseph Banks papers, 1763-1830, (Manuscripts and Archives)

Scientist, elected to Royal Society 1766, sailed with Cook on the Endeavour 1768-1771. He became President of the Royal Society in 1778 and was made a baronet in 1781. He was general adviser to the government on all Australian matters. He has been called "the father of Australia" (Searle).

From the description of Papers of Sir Joseph Banks [manuscript]. 1745-1820. (Libraries Australia). WorldCat record id: 225632781

Botanist and naturalist, Sir Joseph Banks, FRS, was born into a wealthy land-owning family on February 12, 1743. He expressed a particular interest in botany at an early age and after inheriting his family's fortune in the 1760's, was free to fully engage in his passion. He accompanied James Cook aboard the H.M.S Endeavor on his first voyage to Tahiti in 1768. The specimens collected on this voyage accounted for approximately 110 new genera and 1300 new species. After this trip, he became actively involved in promoting the British colonization of Australia. Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1766, he became president in 1778, a post he held until his death on June 19, 1820.

The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, also known as the Royal Society, was founded in London in 1660. The Society began in the 1640's as a discussion group among natural philosophers. Its purpose was to investigate and support experiential science. The Society became the United Kingdom's national academy of science, supporting and facilitating the work and education of members of the scientific community throughout the UK and the Commonwealth.

From the description of Collection of letters of Sir Joseph Banks : Soho Square [London] 1783 Sept. 6 - 1814 May 30. (University of California, Los Angeles). WorldCat record id: 64680582

1761 member of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactuers and Commerce; 1766 fellow of the Royal Society and fellow of the Society of Antiquaries; 1766-1771 apprentice to Constantine Phipps, expedition of the Endeavour to Labrador and Newfoundland; 1772 voyage to explore the geology of Iceland; 1773 director, the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew; 1774-1820 member of council, the Royal Society; 1795 knight, order of the Bath; 1778 founding member, the African Society; 1778-1820 president, the Royal Society; 1781 baronetcy; 1802 member of the National Institute of France.

Epithet: botanist, naturalist and patron of science

Title: 1st Baronet

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000000471.0x0002a6

Biography

Botanist and naturalist, Sir Joseph Banks, FRS, was born into a wealthy land-owning family on February 12, 1743. He expressed a particular interest in botany at an early age and after inheriting his family's fortune in the 1760's, was free to fully engage in his passion. He accompanied James Cook aboard the H.M.S Endeavor on his first voyage to Tahiti in 1768. The specimens collected on this voyage accounted for approximately 110 new genera and 1300 new species. After this trip, he became actively involved in promoting the British colonization of Australia. Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1766, he became president in 1778, a post he held until his death on June 19, 1820. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, also known as the Royal Society, was founded in London in 1660. The Society began in the 1640's as a discussion group among natural philosophers. Its purpose was to investigate and support experiential science. The Society became the United Kingdom's national academy of science, supporting and facilitating the work and education of members of the scientific community throughout the UK and the Commonwealth.

From the guide to the Joseph Banks Correspondence, 1783-1808, (University of California, Los Angeles. Library. Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library History and Special Collections Division)

Humphry Davy (1778–1829, APS 1810) was a British chemist and pioneer in the field of electrochemistry. He was a major figure in the reformed chemistry movement initiated by the French scientist Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794, APS 1775).

Davy was the son of an impoverished Cornish woodcarver. As a youth, he was apprenticed to an apothecary-surgeon with whom he pursued a regimen of self-study that included theology, philosophy, poetics, several languages, as well as, botany, chemistry, anatomy, mechanics and physics. In subsequent years, when most of his time was occupied by scientific endeavors, Davy exhibited a particular fondness for philosophical writings and poetry. In 1799 he published his first poems.

However, it was Davy’s aptitude for scientific matters that soon attracted attention. One of the people who recognized his abilities was Davies Giddy (1767-1839), a Member of Parliament with scientific interests. Giddy eventually became Davy’s patron. He allowed his protégé access to his library; furthermore, he persuaded Davy’s master to release him from his indenture so that he could become the assistant to Thomas Beddoes, Giddy’s former teacher at Oxford.

In 1798 Davy joined Beddoes's Pneumatic Institution in Bristol which was established for the purpose of investigating the medical powers of newly discovered airs and gases. There, he made the acquaintance of fellow scientists as well as individuals with literary interests, including Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), Joseph Cottle (1770-1853), and Maria Edgeworth (1767-1849). In 1797 Davy read Lavoisier’s Traité élémentaire de chimie in French, a study that made a deep impression on him. Two years later he published an essay in which he refuted Lavoisier’s caloric; that same year he established his reputation as a chemist with his book Researches, Chemical and Philosophical, chiefly concerning Nitrous Oxide . . . and its Respiration in which he suggested that nitrous oxide (laughing gas) be used as an anesthetic in minor surgical operations. Davy had arrived at his conclusions after a series of risky experiments with different gases on himself. He described his “emotions” after awakening from the effects of laughing gas as “enthusiastic and sublime.”

Davy engaged in electrochemical experiments that led to several discoveries, including the recognition that the production of electricity was linked to a chemical reaction. He also isolated and analyzed the chemical elements potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium. One of his best-known contributions to the field was his conclusion that, contrary to Lavoisier’s claims, there was no material basis for acidity. In 1810 he announced that the green gas contained in sea salt was an element. He named it chlorine.

As a strong promoter of applied science, Davy also engaged in various practical projects. He researched the chemistry of tanning, promoted improvements to agricultural practices, and developed a miner’s lamp that inhibited the ignition of the methane gas commonly found in mines. Furthermore, Davy was known as an effective lecturer. He made scientific topics accessible to an audience that extended beyond a small circle of fellow scientists.

Davy’s accomplishments were recognized with numerous awards and honors. In 1801 he joined the faculty of the Royal Institution in London. He became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1803, was awarded the Copley medal in 1805, and served as the Society’s president from 1820 to 1827. He was knighted in 1812 and created a baronet in 1818. He was also a founder of the Geological Society of London, the London Zoo and the Athenaeum.

Davy was married to Jane Apreece Kerr, a wealthy and well-connected widow. They did not have children. In 1829, he suffered a stroke while vacationing in Italy. He died a few days later.

From the guide to the Sir Humphry Davy correspondence, 1803-1822, 1803-1822, (American Philosophical Society)



Biographical notes are generated from the bibliographic and archival source records supplied by data contributors.

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61711323

Subjects:

  • Voyages and travels.
  • Agriculture--Great Britain.
  • Wool trade and industry.
  • Guugu Yimidhirr / Gugu Yimithirr / Kuku Yimidhirr people (Y82) (Qld SD55-13)
  • Reclamation of land
  • Language - Vocabulary - Word lists
  • Ojibwa Indians
  • Beyond Early America
  • Naturalists--Diaries
  • Physics -- History.
  • Eastern Woodlands Indians
  • Chemistry
  • Early National Politics
  • Iroquois Indians
  • Merino sheep
  • Agriculture.
  • Birds--Early works to 1800
  • Botanists--Correspondence
  • History of science and technology.
  • Fens.
  • Seneca Indians
  • Natural history
  • Inuit--Canada
  • Symmons, J. (John), 1781-1842
  • Cattle--Breeding
  • Annisson, E.A.J., d. 1788
  • Mohawk Indians
  • Sheep--Breeding
  • Southwest Indians
  • Societies, Scientific
  • Language - Linguistics - Language elicitation
  • Science--Great Britain.
  • Onondaga Indians
  • Horticulture
  • Fens
  • Tuscarora Indians
  • Wool industry
  • Cattle--Breeding.
  • Botany
  • Merino sheep.
  • Botany.
  • Guugu Yimidhirr / Gugu Yimithirr / Kuku Yimidhirr language (Y82) (Qld SD55-13)
  • Reclamation of land.
  • United States--History--Revolution, 1775-1783
  • Scientific expeditions
  • Natural history.
  • La Billardie`re, Jacques-Julien Houtou de, 1755-1834.
  • Oneida Indians
  • Isleta Indians
  • Marine biology
  • Horticulture.
  • Anatomy
  • Natural History
  • Turner, Dawson, 1775-1858
  • Science
  • United States - Politics and government - 1815-1861
  • Lysons, Samuel, 1763-1819
  • Voyages and travels
  • Medicine.
  • Mineralogy.
  • Arctic Indians
  • Natural history--Early works to 1800
  • Naturalists--Correspondence
  • Agriculture
  • Cayuga Indians
  • Glasse, Samuel, 1735-1812
  • Colonial Politics
  • Penobscot Indians
  • Sheep breeding.

Occupations:

  • Botanists.
  • Diplomats -- Portugal.
  • Naturalists.
  • Explorers.
  • Naturalists--England.

Places:

  • Great Britain (as recorded)
  • Switzerland, Europe (as recorded)
  • North America, America (as recorded)
  • Woburn, Bedfordshire (as recorded)
  • Canada (as recorded)
  • Greenwich, Kent (as recorded)
  • Kirkby-on-Bain, Lincolnshire (as recorded)
  • Europe (as recorded)
  • Africa (as recorded)
  • South Seas, South Seas (as recorded)
  • Wick, Caithness-shire (as recorded)
  • Schweidnitz, Silesia (as recorded)
  • Poland, Europe (as recorded)
  • Stockbridge, Hampshire (as recorded)
  • Newfoundland and Labrador (as recorded)
  • Brissac Fort, France (as recorded)
  • Europe. (as recorded)
  • Manchester, Lancashire (as recorded)
  • Wilton, Wiltshire (as recorded)
  • India, Asia (as recorded)
  • Edinburgh, Scotland (as recorded)
  • Tristan da Cunha Isle, S. Atlantic Ocean (as recorded)
  • Brest, France (as recorded)
  • Australia--Tasmania (as recorded)
  • Naples, Italy (as recorded)
  • India, Asia (as recorded)
  • Lancashire, England (as recorded)
  • Norwich, Norfolk (as recorded)
  • England (as recorded)
  • Canada, North America (as recorded)
  • Longford Castle, Wiltshire (as recorded)
  • Middle East (as recorded)
  • Newfoundland, Canada (as recorded)
  • Dominica, the W. Indies (as recorded)
  • Great Britain (as recorded)
  • Jamaica, Central America (as recorded)
  • Oceania (as recorded)
  • Hanwell, Middlesex (as recorded)
  • Lancashire, England (as recorded)
  • London, England (as recorded)
  • Java (as recorded)
  • Portugal, Europe (as recorded)
  • Scotland, United Kingdom (as recorded)
  • Shirburn Castle, Oxfordshire (as recorded)
  • Lincolnshire (England) (as recorded)
  • Lancashire, England (as recorded)
  • Worcester, Worcestershire (as recorded)
  • Mottram - in - Longendale, Cheshire (as recorded)
  • Naples and Sicily, Kingdom of, Italy (as recorded)
  • Denmark, Kingdom of, Europe (as recorded)
  • London, England (as recorded)
  • Brighton, Sussex (as recorded)
  • Guienne, Province of, France (as recorded)
  • England (as recorded)
  • Scotland, Kingdom of, United Kingdom (as recorded)
  • Russia, Empire of, Asia (as recorded)
  • Orkney (Scotland) (as recorded)
  • Poland, Kingdom of, Europe (as recorded)
  • Cheshire, England (as recorded)
  • Greenford, Middlesex (as recorded)
  • Westmeath, county of, Ireland (as recorded)
  • Java (Indonesia) (as recorded)
  • Newfoundland and Labrador (as recorded)
  • Great Britain (as recorded)
  • Persia, Asia Minor (as recorded)
  • Xanthus, Lycia (as recorded)
  • England (as recorded)
  • Cheshire, England (as recorded)
  • Grenada, the W. Indies (as recorded)
  • Guyana, Venezuela (as recorded)
  • Madagascar, Africa (as recorded)
  • Scotland, United Kingdom (as recorded)
  • Althorp, Northamptonshire (as recorded)
  • Glasgow, Scotland (as recorded)
  • Freyberg Fort, Brissgaw, Schwabia (as recorded)
  • Europe (as recorded)
  • Ehrenbreitstein, Germany (as recorded)
  • Germany, Europe (as recorded)
  • Fécamp Fort, France (as recorded)
  • France (as recorded)
  • Australia (as recorded)
  • Lucerne, Switzerland (as recorded)
  • Revesby, Lincolnshire (as recorded)
  • Arctic, Arctic (as recorded)
  • Herculaneum, Italy (as recorded)
  • Africa, Africa (as recorded)
  • Luton, Bedfordshire (as recorded)
  • Syria, Asia Minor (as recorded)
  • India, Asia (as recorded)
  • Newfoundland and Labrador (as recorded)
  • England (as recorded)
  • Pitcairn Island (as recorded)
  • Netherlands, Europe (as recorded)
  • St. Vincent, West Indies (as recorded)
  • Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany (as recorded)
  • Lincolnshire, England (as recorded)
  • Ripen Fort, Denmark (as recorded)
  • Cape St. Vincent, Portugal (as recorded)
  • Constantinople, Byzantine empire (as recorded)
  • Geneva, Switzerland (as recorded)
  • Iceland (as recorded)
  • India, Asia (as recorded)
  • Mountstuart House, Isle of Bute (as recorded)
  • Paris, France (as recorded)
  • Naples and Sicily, Kingdom of, Italy (as recorded)
  • Africa (as recorded)
  • queensland South East Cape York (Qld SD54, SD55) (as recorded)
  • Australia (as recorded)
  • Constantinople, Byzantine empire (as recorded)
  • China (as recorded)
  • Turkey, Asia Minor (as recorded)
  • Scotland, Kingdom of, United Kingdom (as recorded)
  • United States of America (as recorded)
  • Dublin, Ireland (as recorded)
  • China (as recorded)
  • Oceania (as recorded)
  • Iceland, Europe (as recorded)
  • Amsterdam, Netherlands (as recorded)
  • Ireland, Europe (as recorded)
  • Newfoundland and Labrador (as recorded)
  • Bodmin, Cornwall (as recorded)
  • Scotland, United Kingdom (as recorded)
  • Brazil (as recorded)
  • Sistova, Turkey (as recorded)
  • Africa (as recorded)
  • Wittersham, Kent (as recorded)
  • Brazil (as recorded)
  • Lincoln, Lincolnshire (as recorded)
  • Richmond, Surrey (as recorded)
  • Lincolnshire (England) (as recorded)
  • Sussex, England (as recorded)
  • River Gambia, West Africa (as recorded)
  • Gloucestershire, England (as recorded)
  • Levant, Asia Minor (as recorded)
  • Fort St. Martin, Ile de Ré (as recorded)
  • Egypt, Africa (as recorded)
  • England (as recorded)
  • England (as recorded)
  • Windsor, Berkshire (as recorded)
  • Philadelphia (Pa.) (as recorded)
  • St. Gall, Switzerland (as recorded)
  • Dublin, Ireland (as recorded)
  • Africa, Africa (as recorded)
  • Myerscough Forest, Lancashire (as recorded)
  • Lincolnshire (England) (as recorded)
  • Lincolnshire, England (as recorded)
  • Westerwaldt District, Germany (as recorded)
  • Corsley, Wiltshire (as recorded)
  • Middle East (as recorded)
  • Venezuela, S. America (as recorded)
  • Manchester, Lancashire (as recorded)
  • Glasgow, Scotland (as recorded)
  • Ireland, Europe (as recorded)
  • Nova Scotia, North America (as recorded)
  • Liverpool, Lancashire (as recorded)
  • Naturalists - England (as recorded)
  • North America, America (as recorded)
  • Sherborne, Dorset (as recorded)
  • Brussels, Belgium (as recorded)
  • Cape Verde Islands, Africa (as recorded)
  • Amsterdam, Netherlands (as recorded)
  • Poland, Kingdom of, Europe (as recorded)
  • Wilmslow, Cheshire (as recorded)
  • Vermont, U.S.A. (as recorded)
  • Great Britain (as recorded)
  • Grenada, the W. Indies (as recorded)
  • Rouen, France (as recorded)
  • Middle East (as recorded)
  • Godmersham, Kent (as recorded)
  • Ireland, Europe (as recorded)
  • Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire (as recorded)
  • Netherlands, Europe (as recorded)
  • Ireland, Europe (as recorded)
  • United States - Politics and government - 1809-1817 (as recorded)
  • Netherlands, Europe (as recorded)
  • Ionian Islands, Greece (as recorded)
  • Soviet Union (as recorded)
  • England (as recorded)
  • Africa (as recorded)
  • Dublin, Ireland (as recorded)
  • Great Britain. (as recorded)
  • Dominica, the W. Indies (as recorded)
  • Soviet Union (as recorded)
  • Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Leicestershire (as recorded)
  • Netherlands, Europe (as recorded)
  • Blavet Fort, France (as recorded)
  • Great Britain (as recorded)
  • Karlsruhe, Baden-Wurttemberg (as recorded)
  • Manchester, Lancashire (as recorded)
  • St. Vincent, West Indies (as recorded)
  • Great Britain (as recorded)
  • Mayence, Germany (as recorded)
  • Soviet Union (as recorded)
  • Great Britain (as recorded)
  • Derbyshire, England (as recorded)
  • Canada (as recorded)
  • Great Britain (as recorded)
  • Dallington House, Northamptonshire (as recorded)
  • Forfarshire, Scotland (as recorded)
  • Pontefract, Yorkshire (as recorded)
  • Derbyshire, England (as recorded)
  • Dean, Forest of, Gloucestershire (as recorded)
  • San Domingo, the Carribean (as recorded)
  • Brazil (as recorded)
  • St. Catharine's Fort, Rouen (as recorded)
  • Sherwood Forest, Nottinghamshire (as recorded)
  • Netherlands, Europe (as recorded)
  • India, Asia (as recorded)
  • Australia (as recorded)
  • Liverpool, Lancashire (as recorded)
  • Fife, Scotland (as recorded)
  • High Cliff, Hampshire (as recorded)
  • West Indies, America (as recorded)
  • Java (as recorded)
  • Kingston-on-Thames, Surrey (as recorded)
  • Scotland, United Kingdom (as recorded)
  • Dymchurch, Kent (as recorded)
  • London, England (as recorded)
  • London, England (as recorded)
  • Germany, Europe (as recorded)
  • Louth, Lincolnshire (as recorded)
  • Italy, Europe (as recorded)
  • Great Britain (as recorded)
  • Gibraltar, Spain (as recorded)
  • England (as recorded)
  • India, Asia (as recorded)
  • Southwold, Suffolk (as recorded)
  • China (as recorded)
  • Naples and Sicily, Kingdom of, Italy (as recorded)
  • Bewdley, Worcestershire (as recorded)
  • New Holland, North America (as recorded)
  • Brazil (as recorded)
  • New Brunswick, North America (as recorded)
  • Hilgay, Norfolk (as recorded)
  • Norwich, Norfolk (as recorded)
  • India, Asia (as recorded)
  • India, Asia (as recorded)
  • Ancenis Fort, France (as recorded)
  • Brazil (as recorded)
  • Pitcairn Island (as recorded)
  • England (as recorded)
  • Germany, Europe (as recorded)
  • Jamaica, Central America (as recorded)
  • Leicester, Leicestershire (as recorded)
  • United States of America (as recorded)