Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1823-12-22
Death 1911-05-09
Americans
Latin, English, French, German

Biographical notes:

Higginson, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts to Stephen Higginson and Louisa (Storrow) Higginson, graduated from Harvard Divinity School in 1847 and became a pastor first in Newburyport and then in Worcester, Massachusetts. He was actively involved in the abolitionist movement and served as colonel of the first regiment of African Americans in the Civil War. After the war, Higginson published biographies, essays, poetry, and histories, including Army life in a black regiment.

From the description of Thomas Wentworth Higginson additional papers, 1779-1910. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 612694188

From the guide to the Thomas Wentworth Higginson additional papers, 1779-1910., (Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University)

American author and army officer.

From the description of Letter to an unknown recipient, possibly R. D. Blackmore [manuscript], 1871 January 11. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647824687

Clergyman and author Higginson of Cambridge, Mass., attended Harvard College, served in the Civil War, and wrote and edited numerous volumes of literature.

From the description of Letters, 1887-1907 (inclusive). (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 232007335

American author and army officer

From the description of Thomas W. Higginson papers [manuscript], 1864-1901. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 276999244

Thomas Wentworth Higginson (1823-1911) was a minister, author, reformer, historian, abolitionist, soldier, advocate for women's rights and a colonel of the first regiment of African Americans in the Civil War (1862-1864).

From the description of Thomas Wentworth Higginson additional scrapbooks and other papers, 1838-1923. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 612804753

American clergyman, army officer and writer.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Dublin, New Hampshire, to Charles Eliot Norton, 1905 Aug. 29. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270467702

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Cambridge, Mass., to Mrs. Pond, 1903 Apr. 22. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270466503

U.S. Army officer, author, and clergyman.

From the description of Letter of Thomas Wentworth Higginson, no year June 10. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79450890

Temperance and suffragist leader.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : "The Round Table" [Boston], to Mrs. [Mary Ashton Rice] Livermore, 1892 May 4. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270871009

Thomas Wentworth Higginson (1823-1911) was a minister, reformer, soldier, and author. He graduated from Harvard University and was minister of the "Free Church" in Worcester, Mass. Distinguished as an opponent of slavery, he also supported suffrage for women and was an active lecturer. From 1862 to 1864, he commanded the first "Negro" Union regiment, the 1st South Carolina Volunteers. In his later years he wrote many articles and books.

From the description of Papers, 1853-1911. (American Antiquarian Society). WorldCat record id: 191259420

American minister, reformer, soldier, and author.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Newport, R.I., to an unidentified recipient, 1866 Mar. 4. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 751980833

Thomas Wentworth Higginson received his A.B. from Harvard in 1841. He graduated from the Divinity School in 1847.

From the description of Notes in Divinity School, 1843-1847. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 77072832

Thomas Wentworth Higginson received his A.B. from Harvard in 1841.

From the description of Exercise books in Greek, Latin, Mathematics, Italian, and French, 1837-1840. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 77072789

Thomas Wentworth Higginson was an important and versatile figure in late 19th century New England and America, a writer, politician, critic, soldier, religious radical, and social reformer. He worked tirelessly for black and female suffrage, and led the first regiment of free slaves in the Union Army. He published prolifically, in diverse genres, but is perhaps remembered more as Emily Dickinson's staunch but ineffectual mentor.

From the description of Thomas Wentworth Higginson letters, 1868-1907. (Pennsylvania State University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 50033131

Higginson was an author, reformer, and soldier; colonel of the first black regiment during the Civil War (1862-1864); and ardent abolitionist and advocate of women's suffrage.

From the description of Letters and journals, 1824-1910 (inclusive), 1837-1882 (bulk). (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 122468818

From the guide to the Letters and journals, 1824-1910., (Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University)

Higginson was an American writer, Unitarian minister, and leader in the abolitionist movement. He was a colonel of the First South Carolina Volunteers (the first African-American regiment in the Civil War), an advocate of women's suffrage, and a close friend of the poet Emily Dickinson. A lifelong radical, in his old age Higginson joined with Jack London and Upton Sinclair to found the Intercollegiate Socialist Society.

From the description of Thomas Wentworth Higginson papers, 1856-1911. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 612365275

From the guide to the Thomas Wentworth Higginson papers, 1856-1911., (Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University)

Author born in Cambridge, Mass.

From the description of ALS : Cambridge, Mass., to Mr. Barton, 1895 March 9. (Boston Public Library). WorldCat record id: 39782257

Minister, Army officer, author, and social reformer, of Cambridge, Mass.

From the description of Letters, 1868-1906. (Duke University Library). WorldCat record id: 19643132

From the description of Letters, 1868-1906. (Duke University Library). WorldCat record id: 154270590

Thomas Wentworth Higginson was a Massachusetts minister and author who was active in the anti-slavery movement before the U.S. Civil War. In 1854 he led a failed attempt to break Anthony Burns, a captured fugitive slave, out of the Boston Court House jail. Beginning in 1855 he worked with militant abolitionist groups who advocated the admission of Kansas into the Union as a free (non-slave) state. Higginson travelled to Kansas Territory with a company of free state settlers in fall 1856 and published his letters from there in the New York tribune titled, "A Ride through Kanzas" with the signature "Worcester." He was one of a group of New England abolitionists who financially supported John Brown's anti-slavery activities in territorial Kansas and later his raid on Harper's Ferry, Va., Oct. 16, 1859. His published writings include histories, biographies and essays.

From the description of Thomas Wentworth Higginson papers [microform], 1855-1860, 1907 (bulk 1855-1860). (Kansas State Historical Society). WorldCat record id: 48463152

The Concord, Mass., centenary observances of Nathaniel Hawthorne's birth were held at the Wayside (formerly Hawthorne's home) and the Hillside Chapel of the Concord School of Philosophy, July 4-7, 1904. Thomas Wentworth Higginson presided over the ceremonies, which included reminiscences, speeches, poems, and the unveiling of a bronze tablet on the hill behind the Wayside. Higginson also edited and prepared for press the printed volume recording the proceedings at the celebration (The Hawthorne Centenary Celebration at the Wayside ..., Boston : Houghton, Mifflin, 1905; BAL 8466).

From the description of The Hawthorne centenary celebration at the Wayside : Concord, Massachusetts, July 4-7, 1904. First day, July Fourth : typescript, 1904. (Concord Public Library). WorldCat record id: 37325048

Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Unitarian minister, abolitionist, was a supporter of woman suffrage, and friend of Radcliffe College.

From the description of Letter, 1909. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 232007608

Unitarian clergyman, army officer, abolitionist, women's rights activist, and poet, of Cambridge, Mass.; served churches at Newburyport and Worcester, Mass.; during the Civil War, volunteered with 51st Massachusetts Volunteers and later served as colonel for First Carolina Volunteers (33rd U.S. Colored Troops); m. Mary Elizabeth Channing (d. 1877) and Mary Potter Thacher.

From the description of Thomas Wentworth Higginson carte-de-visite album, 1862-1866. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 436275522

Higginson was an author, reformer, and soldier; colonel of the first black regiment during the Civil War (1862-1864); an ardent abolitionist and advocate of women's suffrage.

From the description of Scrapbooks, 1867-1879. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 612365176

Clergyman, army officer, writer.

From the description of Thomas Wentworth Higginson letters [manuscript] 1857-1873. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647942925

Higginson (Harvard, A.B. 1841) studied under Thaddeus William Harris and served as entomological curator at the Harvard Natural History Society. Though he was involved in Massachusetts politics and religious activities after graduation, Higginson maintained an amateur interest in natural history and botany. He published a memoir of Harris (1869) and listed the flora of the Boston vicinity, as memtioned in his American Men of Science entries from 1906 and 1910.

From the description of Botanical notebooks of Thomas Wentworth Higginson, 1841-1894 (inclusive). (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 40961356

Higginson was an author, reformer, and soldier; colonel of the first African-American regiment during the Civil War (1862-1864); an ardent abolitionist and advocate of women's suffrage.

From the description of Correspondence, 1843-1911. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 80954794

Higginson was an author, reformer, and soldier; colonel of the first African American regiment during the Civil War (1862-1864); an ardent abolitionist and advocate of women's suffrage.

From the guide to the Thomas Wentworth Higginson correspondence, 1843-1911., (Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University)

American clergyman; army officer and writer.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Cambridge, Mass., to "My dear Warner" [Charles Dudley Warner], 1883 Oct. 17. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270466522

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Rockport, to the Rev. John Pierpont, 1854 Jul. 11. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270472166

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Cambridge, Mass., to Charles Devens, 1878 Dec. 28. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270466485

From the description of Women & Men. Women & Men in Conference : autograph manuscript signed with initials of pages one and nine of this article, [n.d.]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270484876

From the description of Autograph letters signed (2) : Cambridge, Mass., to Harper & Bros., 1892 Jan. 7 and 29. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270476056

Thomas Wentworth Higginson (1823-1911) received his AB degree from Harvard in 1841 and graduated from the Harvard Divinity School in 1847. He was a minister, author, historian, abolitionist, advocate for women's rights and a colonel in the first regiment of African Americans in the Civil War.

From the description of Scrapbook of clippings, Oldport Days, 1873. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 77069646

Thomas Wentworth Higginson was a Unitarian minister, author, and abolitionist. During the Civil War, he commanded the 1st South Carolina Volunteers, the first black regiment in the war.

From the description of T. W. Higginson letter to Miss Wellington, 1872 December 29. (University of California, Santa Barbara). WorldCat record id: 746953163

The botanist Frank Shipley Collins (1848-1920) was an authority on American algae. He spent his life in Massachusetts where he worked for the Malden Rubber Shoe Company for over three decades. Despite the fact that Collins’ formal education never extended beyond high school, he became a noted phycologist with a particular interest in New England algae. He is generally considered the foremost American algologist of his time.

Frank Shipley Collins was born in 1848 in Boston, the son of Joshua Cobb Collins and Elizabeth Ann Carter Collins. As a young boy he preferred books and the instructive stories of two aunts, who were teachers, to outdoor play. He was introduced to modern and ancient languages as well as mathematics and botany at an early age. He subsequently enrolled at a private school in Malden, and, after the death of his father, attended public schools in that town. He continued his home studies of Greek, Latin, French, mathematics, and astronomy, and at age sixteen graduated from high school. A severe case of asthma kept him from most activities, and he spent the next couple of years at home, focusing on the study of music and art. In 1873 he spent seven months in Europe, much of which he devoted to activities related to music and art.

His mother and aunts hoped that young Frank would attend Harvard University but his grandfather decided that work would be a better choice. Collins evidently tried his hands in different trades until he settled on bookkeeping. He eventually found employment with the Malden Rubber Shoe Company as a ticket clerk. He also worked on improving the methods by which the shoes were made. He quickly rose to the rank of manager and remained with the company for over thirty years; even after his retirement in 1913 he returned to the company as an efficiency expert during WWI.

While Collins’s formal education never extended beyond high school, he displayed a keen interest in a range of subjects, including art and music, Spanish, and, for a time, theosophy, a field in which he subsequently published an essay. He also devoted considerable time to scientific endeavors, especially botany. As early as the 1870s he seems to have been associated with George Edward Davenport (1833-1907) and Lorin Low Dame (1838-1903) in the activities of the Middlesex Scientific Field Club, later the Middlesex Institute, which was founded in 1878. He was elected vice-president in 1878, and he delivered a paper before the club in 1879.

In 1875 Collins married Anna Lendrum Holmes. Shortly thereafter he became interested in algae when during a visit to the sea shore he saw cards with sea mosses for sale to tourists. Collins was fascinated by the cards, partly because he recognized right away that the naming was quite inadequate. He set out to correct the botanical names and to examine algae more carefully. At that time little was known about American species of algae, especially local environments, and the existing literature tended to be incomplete and unreliable. Collins began to explore New England’s coast in search of algae, and he soon acquire an understanding of marine flora that was unrivaled. By the late 1870s Collins was speaking on the subject, and in 1879 he announced in The Naturalist that he was actively seeking to exchange New England algae with specimens from other parts of the country, especially Florida and California. Several collectors in these regions responded by sending speciments to him. By 1882 he published the first in a series of “Notes” on New England algae in the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club . He subsequently extended his work from biodiversity assessments with a regional focus on New England to include studies of marine flora along the Atlantic coast to Jamaica and Bermuda, which he visited several times.

In 1888 Dame and Collins published their “Flora of Middlesex County, Massachusetts” under the auspices of the Middlesex Institute. Over the following years Collins published several essays on algae, culminating in his most important publication, his book The Green Algae of North America (1918). In addition, with the botanist William A. Setchell (1864-1943) and his fellow businessman and amateur botanist Issac Holden (1832-1903), Collins compiled the Phycotheca Boreali-Americana (1912-1917), a published set of dried North American algae that required the handling of over 200,000 specimens. With the help of collectors and students, Collins undertook much of the work required for the completion of the fascicles, including not only the assembling, sorting, labeling, and design, but also the necessary financial details. From 1895 to 1919, the collection was issued in forty-six bound volumes and five elephant folio volumes.

Collins assembled one of the finest marine herbaria of his time. He donated specimens of New England algae to the Boston Society of Natural History and to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. He also completely rearranged the algae in the collections of the Boston Society of Natural History, Missouri Botanical Garden, and Harvard University. Collins’ own collections of algae survive in museums and universities across the country, including the New York Botanical Garden.

Despite the fact that Collins lacked a college education and spent much of his time with business pursuits, his accomplishments in botany and especially phycology earned him the respect of the highest authorities in the field. His correspondents included Eduoard Bornet (1828-1911), Ferdinand Hauck (1845-1889), George W. Traill (1836-1897), and Anna Weber-van Bosse (1852-1942). Collins was a member of the biological stations at Woods Hole, Masachusetts, and South Harpswell, Maine. He was also a member of the Middlesex Institute, the Boston Society of Natural History, the Massachusetts Horticultural Society (1913), American Society of Naturalists (1918), and the New England Botanical Club, whose journal Rhodora he co-edited for several years and of which he was president from 1902 to 1905. He was corresponding member of the Torrey Botanical Club and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1901). Tufts College awarded him an honorary master’s degree in 1910, and Harvard made him an associate in its museum. Collins died in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1920.

From the guide to the Frank Shipley Collins papers, 1872-1919, 1872-1919, (American Philosophical Society)

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Subjects:

  • Social reformers
  • Spiritualism
  • Plants--Identification
  • African Americans
  • Abolitionists
  • Death
  • Sermons, American
  • Women's rights--19th century
  • Blacks--History--19th century
  • American literature--20th century
  • Fugitive slaves
  • Algae
  • Unitarianism
  • American literature--19th century
  • Women--Suffrage
  • Lectures and lecturing
  • Secretaries
  • Biological specimens--Identification
  • African Americans--Education
  • African Americans--Music
  • Social reformers--19th century--Correspondence
  • Historians
  • Botany
  • American literature--19th century--Book reviews
  • Slavery--Insurrections, etc
  • Harvard University--Student life
  • Antislavery movements
  • Spirituals (Songs)--Texts
  • Temperance--Societies, etc
  • Authors, American
  • Botany--Classification
  • Natural history
  • American literature
  • Speeches, addresses, etc

Occupations:

  • Army officers
  • Clergy
  • Authors
  • Collector

Places:

  • United States (as recorded)
  • Massachusetts--Concord (as recorded)
  • Azores (as recorded)
  • Cambridge (Mass.) (as recorded)
  • Cambridge (Mass.) (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Kansas (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Massachusetts (as recorded)
  • Massachusetts (as recorded)
  • Massachusetts (as recorded)
  • New York (State)--Buffalo (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Cambridge (Mass.) (as recorded)
  • New England (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • New England (as recorded)
  • New England (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Kansas (as recorded)
  • Boston (Mass.) (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Worcester (Mass.) (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)