Iturbide, Agustín de, 1783-1824

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1783-09-27
Death 1824-07-19

Biographical notes:

First emperor of Mexico. Born 1783 in Valladolid (Morelia); executed July 19, 1824, in Padilla, Tamaulipas. Iturbide joined the army in 1800, by 1810 was fighting with the royalists, and by 1820 held the rank of colonel. In February 1821 he and Vicente Guerrero signed the Plan de Iguala and created the Ejército Trigarante. In August 1821 Iturbide and viceroy Juan O'Donoju signed the Tratado de Córdoba, ending the war and giving Mexico independence. Iturbide was proclaimed emperor in May 1822 but by October was forced to dissolve the national congress because of resistance from the opposition. In March 1823 he reinstated congress, then abdicated and fled to Italy. In April 1824 the congress, having already declared his administration void, revoked his pension and declared Iturbide a traitor. When he returned to Mexico in July 1824 he was apprehended on arrival in Tamaulipas and executed the next day. In 1838 Anastasio Bustamante declared Iturbide one of the "First Heroes of Mexican Independence."

From the description of Agustín de Iturbide collection, 1813-1838 (bulk 1821-1824). (University of Texas Libraries). WorldCat record id: 31775745

Mexican soldier and emperor.

From the description of Papers of Agustín de Iturbide, 1799-1880 (bulk 1812-1824). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 71060886

First emperor of Mexico. Born 1783 in Valladolid (Morelia); executed July 19, 1824, in Padilla, Tamaulipas. Iturbide joined the army in 1800, by 1810 was fighting with the royalists, and by 1820 held the rank of colonel.

In February 1821 he and Vicente Guerrero signed the Plan de Iguala and created the Ejército Trigarante. In August 1821 Iturbide and viceroy Juan O'Donoju signed the Tratado de Córdoba, ending the war and giving Mexico independence. Iturbide was proclaimed emperor in May 1822 but by October was forced to dissolve the national Congress because of resistance from the opposition. In March 1823 he reinstated Congress, then abdicated and fled to Italy.

In April 1824 the Congress, having already declared his administration void, revoked his pension and declared Iturbide a traitor. When he returned to Mexico in July 1824 he was apprehended on arrival in Tamaulipas and executed the next day. In 1838 Anastasio Bustamante declared Iturbide one of the “First Heroes of Mexican Independence.”

  • 1783: born in Valladolid (Morelia) to José Joaquín de Iturbide (wealthy Spaniard) and Josefa de Arámburu (Michoacan)
  • 1798: became a field laborer
  • 1800: enlisted as second lieutenant in Valladolid provincial regiment
  • 1805: married Ana María de Huarte. Cantonment of Jalapa.
  • 1809: Iturbide had some connection with conspiracy in Michelena, Valladolid
  • 1810: offered rank of lieutenant general by Hidalgo, Iturbide refused. Participated in battle of Monte de las Cruces. Fought in battle of independence for royalist forces.
  • 1816: accused but absolved on count of illicit operations
  • 1820: Iturbide had become a colonel in the royalist army
  • 1821 2/24: signed Plan de Iguala with Vicente Guerrero, created Ejército Trigarante
  • 8/24: O'Donojú & Iturbide signed Tratado de Córdoba
  • 9/27: Iturbide led Ejército Trigarante to victory?
  • 1822 5/18: Iturbide proclaimed emporer
  • 5/19: Iturbide emperorship ratified by congress
  • 5/21 or 5/23: Iturbide crowned emperor
  • 5/21 or 5/23: Created Order of Guadalupe. Iturbide had much resistance from primarily republicans, some liberals.
  • 10/31: Iturbide dissolved congress
  • 1823 1/24: Santa Anna incited rebellion with Plan de Casa Mata
  • 3/19: Iturbide reinstated congress, abdicated
  • 3/29: Iturbide & family left residence in Tacubaya. Sailed to Europe from Veracruz.
  • 1824 8: Following arrival in Liorna, Italy, stayed at Villa Fournier.
  • 1824 8: Went to Florence and England.
  • 1824 4/8-28: Congress revoked pension, declared Iturbide a traitor
  • 5/4: Iturbide left London for Mexico
  • 6/14: arrived in Soto la Marina, Tamaulipas. Apprehended by Congress of Tamaulipas and sentenced to death.
  • 6/19: Iturbide executed by firing squad in Padilla, Tamaulipas
  • 1833 11/3: Santa Anna had Iturbide's remains brought to Mexico City & displayed/interred with the First heroes of Independence
  • 1838: Anastasio Bustemante got Congress to decree, retrospectively, Iturbide as a First Hero of Independence

From the guide to the Agustín de Iturbide Collection 31775745., 1813-1838, 1821-1824, (Benson Latin American Collection, General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin)

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Constellation Information

Permalink:
http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w63f4nvt
Ark ID:
w63f4nvt
SNAC ID:
10610375

Subjects:

  • Land tenure

Occupations:

  • Soldiers

Places:

  • California (as recorded)
  • Mexico--Baja California (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)
  • Mexico (as recorded)