Napoléon I, Emperor of the French, 1769-1821

Alternative names
Birth 1769-08-15
Death 1821-05-05

Biographical notes:

French emperor and military commander.

From the description of Letter, 1811. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122322521

Napoleon Bonaparte was a general of the French Revolution (1789-1799); the ruler of France as First Consul of the French Republic from November 11, 1799, to May 18, 1804; Emperor of the French and King of Italy under the name Napoleon I from May 18,1804, to April 6,1814; and briefly restored as Emperor from March 20 to June 22, 1815. He conquered much of Europe but lost two-thirds of his army in a disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812. After his final loss to Britain and Prussia at the Battle of Waterloo (1815), he was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean, where he died six years later of an unidentified ailment. Francesco Antommarchi, Napoleon's personal physician at St. Helena, gave stomach cancer as a reason for Napoleon's death in his death certificate. However, because traces of arsenic were later found in locks of his hair, some have suggested he may have been fatally poisoned. In 1796 Napoleon married Joséphine de Beauharnais, and, after the dissolution of that marriage, he married the Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria in 1810. Napoleon appointed several members of the Bonaparte family and close friends as monarchs of countries he conquered and as important government figures. Although their reigns did not survive his downfall, a nephew, Napoleon III, ruled France later in the nineteenth century.

From the description of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French collection, 1796-1840 (Peking University Library). WorldCat record id: 74216609

Berthier was a major general in Napoleon's army. He bungled the campaign of the spring of 1809, and when Napoleon heard of the trouble he left Paris on April 12, driving night and day until he reached the field of action on April 16. Napoleon then took command and won the battle of Wagram.

From the description of Napoleon letter to Major General Berthier, 1809 April 8. (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 228116434

Napoleon Bonaparte served as a general during the French Revolution and became Emperor of France and King of Italy as Napoleon I.

From the guide to the Napoleon Bonaparte, Military Letters, 1798, 1810

Accession date: 1804

Places: France

Title: Emperor of the French

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000000472.0x000007

Epithet: Napoleon I

Title: Emperor of the French

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000000472.0x0001be


Loading Relationships


Ark ID:


  • Licenses
  • Manuscripts, French
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1800-1815--Campaigns--Sources
  • Silk industry
  • Silk industry--Corsica (France)
  • Kings and rulers--Abdication
  • Families--England
  • Generals--Correspondence
  • Corsicans--Psychology
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1800-1815


not available for this record


  • Republic of France, 00, FR
  • Saint Helena, 02, SH
  • Ajaccio, 94, FR