Simcoe, John Graves, 1752-1806

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1752-02-25
Death 1806-10-26
Bretons

Biographical notes:

On October 15, 1777, John Graves Simcoe was appointed to the command of the Queen's Rangers, an American loyalist regiment organized by Robert Rogers in 1776. Under Simcoe's command, the regiment fought in the Philadelphia Campaign, including the battles of Crooked Billet (1778, May 1) and Monmouth (1778, June 28). In October 1779, Simcoe was captured and exchanged in December. In the spring of 1780, the Rangers were sent to South Carolina to assist in the siege of Charleston, then raided Virginia with Benedict Arnold. In June 1781, the regiment joined Cornwallis's army, and surrendered at Yorktown. In 1783, the regiment left for Nova Scotia and was soon disbanded. Simcoe returned to England and, hoping to procure a promotion, wrote a history of the Queen's Rangers that he planned to present copies to the king, ministers, and members of parliament. A limited edition of his memoir titled The Journal of the Operations of Queen's Rangers from the end of the Year 1777 to the Conclusion of the Late American War was printed in Exeter in 1787. In 1790, Simcoe was elected to parliament and in 1791 became the first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada.

From the description of Journal of the operations of the Queen's Rangers : autograph manuscript draft, before 1787. (Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens). WorldCat record id: 722942121

Lieutenant governor of Upper Canada and British army officer.

From the description of Descriptive account of propsal presented to the British Parliament, 1792. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70980974

In 1791, John Graves Simcoe (1752-1806) was appointed the first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada created under the Constitutional Act of 1791 to accomodate American loyalists and the Six Nations of the Iroquois who had been Britain's allies during the Revolutionary War. Simcoe arrived in Quebec in November 1791 and remained at this post for five years.

From the description of Letter book of John Graves Simcoe, 1792, Jan. 16 -- 1793, Dec. 16. (Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens). WorldCat record id: 721011580

Epithet: Colonel

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000001034.0x0002e4

Commander of the Queen's Rangers in America during the Revolutionary War and later first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada.

From the description of Papers, 1781-1806. (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation). WorldCat record id: 25059820

Lt. Col. John Graves Simcoe (1752-1806) was commander of the Queen's Rangers in America during the Revolutionary War. Later, he served as the first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada.

From the guide to the John Graves Simcoe Papers, ca. 1776-1806., (John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)

Epithet: Lieutenant -General, Governor of St. Domingo

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000001034.0x0002e6

Epithet: Lieutenant-General

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000001034.0x0002e7

Epithet: General

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000001034.0x0002e5

Simcoe was Lt.. Governor of Upper Canada .

Born at Cotterstock, Northamptonshire, Eng. Feb. 25, 1752, the son of Captain John Simcoe, R.N. Was educated at Eton and Merton. became ensign in 35th Regiment, 1771, and adjutant, Mar. 27, 1772 Served in American Revolution; commanded Queen's Rangers, 1777-81; returned to England, 1781-91; was appointed first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada, 1791; in 1794 moved government offices from Niagara to Toronto; left Canada, 1796 to become governor, etc., at Santo Domingo. In 1806 was appointed to high post in India but died before reaching there. (Dic. Can. Biog., ed. Wallace.) (blue index cards)

From the description of Proceedings of a council holden at Buffaloe Creek, 1794 (Detroit Public Library). WorldCat record id: 501192980

John Graves Simcoe was born in Cotterstock, England, and was educated at Eton Grammar School and Merton College, Oxford. He obtained a commission as ensign in the 35th Regiment in 1770. At the outbreak of the American Revolution, he became a captain in the 40th Foot, and in October 1777 he obtained command of the Queen's Rangers. Simcoe was an able officer, and under his leadership the Rangers became one of the most effective Loyalist regiments. He was captured in an ambush in 1779 and imprisoned for six months. In 1781 he was promoted to colonel and returned to England (wounded) shortly before the surrender of Yorktown.

Simcoe recovered from his injuries at the home of his godfather, Admiral Samuel Graves. He married Admiral Graves' niece, Elizabeth Posthuma Gwillim, in 1782. Elizabeth, a wealthy heiress, purchased their 5,000 acre estate on the River Wolf in Dunkeswell. Simcoe entered Parliament in 1790 as member for St. Mawe's, Cornwall, and the following year he was appointed Governor of Upper Canada. He arrived at his new post in 1792, choosing Niagara for his capital. He surveyed the land, strengthened the province's military defenses, and attracted a number of Loyalist settlers to the area. Health issues forced Simcoe to leave Upper Canada in 1796. A year later, he accepted the governorship of St. Domingo, but left after five months due to illness. John Simcoe returned to England in 1797 with the rank of Lieutenant General. He was made Commander-in-Chief of India in 1806, but died before he could take his post.

From the guide to the John Graves Simcoe papers, Simcoe, John Graves, 1774-1824, 1774-1804, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)

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Subjects:

  • American loyalists
  • Indians of North America--Wars--1790-1794--Sources
  • Wayne's Campaign, 1794--Maps
  • Indians of North America--Wars
  • Ship captains--Diaries
  • Indians of North America--Government relations--1789-1869--Sources
  • Iroquois Indians
  • St. Clair's Campaign, 1791--Sources
  • Indians of North America--Canada--Government relations--History--18th century--Sources
  • Indians of North America--Government relations--1789-1869
  • Indians of North America--Canada--Government relations
  • Indians of North America--Government relations
  • Maps shelf
  • Manuscript maps--Early works to 1800
  • Military maps
  • Commerce--History
  • Manuscripts--English
  • Brun Guide
  • Manuscript maps
  • American loyalists--Archives
  • Clinton Maps

Occupations:

  • Public officials--Upper Canada
  • Army officers, British

Places:

  • United States of America (as recorded)
  • Yorktown (Va.) (as recorded)
  • Williamsburg (Va.) (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Great Britain (as recorded)
  • Vermont, U.S.A. (as recorded)
  • Fort Pitt (Pa.) (as recorded)
  • Norfolk, England (as recorded)
  • Great Britain (as recorded)
  • Edinburgh, Scotland (as recorded)
  • America (as recorded)
  • North America, America (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • London, England (as recorded)
  • Canada (as recorded)
  • Peru, South America (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Wilcott, Great Ness (as recorded)
  • Great Britain (as recorded)
  • Ireland, Europe (as recorded)
  • Ohio (as recorded)
  • Virginia (as recorded)
  • Indiana (as recorded)
  • Great Lakes Region (North America) (as recorded)
  • Great Britain (as recorded)
  • Fort Greenville (Ohio) (as recorded)
  • Ireland, Europe (as recorded)
  • Gibraltar, Spain (as recorded)
  • Northwest, Old (as recorded)
  • Belfast, Antrim (as recorded)
  • Minsmere, Suffolk (as recorded)
  • Upper Canada (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Winchester, Hampshire (as recorded)
  • Old Fort Niagara (N.Y.) (as recorded)
  • Great Britain (as recorded)
  • Ontario (as recorded)
  • Leeward Islands, the Carribean (as recorded)
  • India, Asia (as recorded)
  • Northwest, Old (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Canada (as recorded)
  • Fort Bedford (Ont.) (as recorded)
  • Antigua, the Carribean (as recorded)
  • France (as recorded)
  • Fort Detroit (Mich.) (as recorded)
  • Canada, North America (as recorded)
  • Williamsburg (Va.) (as recorded)
  • Corsica, France (as recorded)
  • Norwich, Norfolk (as recorded)
  • Canada (as recorded)
  • Letters (correspondence)--Canada (as recorded)
  • Yorktown (Va.) (as recorded)
  • Ridge, Hertfordshire (as recorded)
  • Norwich, Norfolk (as recorded)
  • Canada (as recorded)
  • Canada (as recorded)
  • United States of America (as recorded)